Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/k-m-raŋ ~ s-raŋ
- ¶ Not to be confused with *mraŋ (“to see, to look”).
- Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
- Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *k-m-raŋ ⪤ s-raŋ (Matisoff, STEDT); *m-raŋ ⪤ s-raŋ (Weidert, 1987; Benedict, 1972).
Similar roots also exist in other families in the region, cf.
- Languages of Southeast Asia
According to Benedict (1972), Proto-Mon-Khmer and Proto-Tibeto-Burman forms *m-raŋ and Old Chinese *mraʔ all descended from a plurisyllabic *m()raŋ() of unknown origin; further cf.
- Languages of Northeast Asia
Sagart et al (2019) contended that Proto-Sino-Tibetan lacked a native word for horse owing to these reasons:
- Horses' remains appeared late in archaelogical records from East Asia;
- A root verb *√raŋ might have yielded various indigenous derivations: when prefixed with nominalizers *m- (> Taraon: mɑ31 ɹoŋ55; Sak: məráŋ; Japhug mbro) or *s- (> Chepang sĕraŋ, Bunan ʂaŋs) or ∅ (> Lai Hakha ràŋ).
- The forms already cited express regular sound correspondence; yet irregular forms like Jingpo kum31 ʒa31 and OC 馬 *mˤraʔ lack nasal endings, thus indicating that these might've been loaned from a Sino-Tibetan source language wherein [mraŋ]'s rhyme had become [mrã], thus signifying "secondary spread of domesticated horses within the family".
*k-m-raŋ ~ s-raŋ
- Old Chinese: 馬 /*mˤraʔ/ (B-S), /*mraːʔ/ (ZS) ("horse")
- Tujia: /ma⁵³/
- /*mraŋ²/ ("horse") (Matisoff, 2003)
- /*mraŋ²/ ("horse") (Bradley, 1979)
- Northern Loloish
- Nusu (Central): /mɹə⁵⁵/
- Yi (Liangshan): ꃅ (mu, “horse”) /mu³³/
- Central Loloish
- Yi (Sani): /m̩⁵⁵/
- Southern Loloish
- Hani (Lüchun): /mo³¹/
- Na (Yongning): /ʐwæ⁵/
- Bai: maix (“horse”)