U+B9D0, 말
HANGUL SYLLABLE MAL
Composition: + +
Dubeolsik input:a-k-f

[U+B9CF]
Hangul Syllables
[U+B9D1]




리 ←→ 매

JejuEdit

PronunciationEdit

IPA(key): /ma̠ɭ/

NounEdit

(mal)

  1. word
  2. speech
  3. language

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • ” in Andrew Cheng; K. David Harrison, Jeju-eo Talking Dictionary, Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages, 2014.
  • ” in Jeju's culture and language, Digital museum.

KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean 말〯 (Yale: mǎl). The rising pitch implies an earlier bisyllabic origin.

PronunciationEdit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ma̠(ː)ɭ]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, the great majority of speakers (in both Koreas) no longer distinguish vowel length.
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mal
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mal
McCune–Reischauer?mal
Yale Romanization?māl
  • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: / 말 / 말까지

    Syllables in red take high pitch. This word always takes low pitch, and heightens the pitch of two subsequent suffixed syllables.

NounEdit

(mal)

  1. speech
    주의하여 들어.
    Nae mareul juuihayeo deureobwa.
    Listen to me carefully.
  2. (colloquial) language
    일본 어디 배웠어?
    Ilbon mareul eodiseo baewosseo?
    Where did you learn Japanese?
    Synonym: (formal) 어(語) (eo)
Derived termsEdit
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean ᄆᆞᆯ (Yale: mòl).

Similar words are found across Eurasia. Compare Manchu ᠮᠣᡵᡳᠨ (morin, horse), Mongolian морь (mori, horse), Nivkh мурӈ (murŋ, horse), Old Chinese (*mraːʔ, horse), Japanese (うま) (uma, horse), and Proto-Indo-European *márkos (horse); see the last link for more.

For the prefix, compare Chinese (, “horse; big, great”), from which it is perhaps calqued.

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mal
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mal
McCune–Reischauer?mal
Yale Romanization?mal
  • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: 의 / 에 / 말

    Syllables in red take high pitch. This word takes low pitch only before consonant-initial multisyllabic suffixes.

NounEdit

(mal) (counter 마리)

  1. horse
  2. playing piece (in games)
  3. sawhorse
Derived termsEdit

PrefixEdit

말— (mal-)

  1. (now unproductive) great; big
    malbeolgreat bee; wasp
    개미malgaemiking ant
    잠자리maljamjaritype of dragonfly

Etymology 3Edit

First attested in the Seokbo sangjeol (釋譜詳節 / 석보상절), 1447, as Middle Korean 말〮 (Yale: mál).

Native Korean related to Sino-Korean . Auxiliary units of quantification of (, doe). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mal
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mal
McCune–Reischauer?mal
Yale Romanization?mal
  • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: / /

    Syllables in red take high pitch. This word always takes high pitch and also heightens the next suffixed syllable.

NounEdit

(mal)

  1. measure (containing about 18 liters or 10 doe ( (doe))
  2. a unit of measure (about 18 liters)
See alsoEdit
  • (doe): 1/10 mal
  • (, jak): 1/1000 mal
  • (hop): 1/100 mal

Etymology 4Edit

From Middle Korean (malh). Short form of 말뚝 (malttuk).

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mal
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mal
McCune–Reischauer?mal
Yale Romanization?mal

NounEdit

(mal)

  1. wooden pile; stake

Etymology 5Edit

First attested in the Hunmong jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527, as Middle Korean ᄆᆞᆯ〮 (Yale: mól).

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mal
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mal
McCune–Reischauer?mal
Yale Romanization?mal

NounEdit

(mal)

  1. an alga or other waterborne cryptogam
  2. seaweed, specifically Potamogeton oxyphyllus.
Derived termsEdit
See alsoEdit

Etymology 6Edit

Sino-Korean word from (end).

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mal
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mal
McCune–Reischauer?mal
Yale Romanization?mal

NounEdit

(mal) (hanja )

  1. end (of a period); late
    조선시대
    joseonsidae mal
    Late Joseon period
    Antonym: 초(初) (cho, beginning)
  2. (baseball) bottom (of an inning)
    9
    guhoe mal
    The bottom of the ninth inning
    Coordinate term: 초(初) (cho, top (of an inning))
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 7Edit

Korean reading of various Chinese characters.

SyllableEdit

(mal)

Extended content
  1. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  2. :
    (MC reading: )
  3. : end; tip
    (eumhun reading: (kkeut mal)))
  4. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  5. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  6. :
    (MC reading: (MC mʉɐt̚))
  7. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  8. :
    (MC reading: (MC mˠat̚))
  9. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  10. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  11. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  12. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  13. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  14. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  15. :
    (MC reading: (MC -))
  16. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))

ReferencesEdit

  • Supreme Court of the Republic of Korea (대한민국 대법원, Daehanmin-guk daebeobwon) (2018). Table of hanja for personal names (인명용 한자표 / 人名用漢字表, inmyeong-yonghanjapyo), page 15. [1]
  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Middle KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “First attestation? Any Old Korean forms known?”)

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

말〯 (mǎl)

  1. word, speech, language
DescendantsEdit
  • Korean: (mal)

Etymology 2Edit

Possibly cognate with Japanese (masu), a similar unit of measure.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

말〮 (mál)

  1. measure (containing about 18 liters or 10 doe ( (doe))
  2. a unit of measure (about 18 liters)
DescendantsEdit
  • Korean: (mal)