Open main menu

Wiktionary β

See also:
U+99AC, 馬
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-99AC

[U+99AB]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+99AD]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Hong Kong
stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 187, +0, 10 strokes, cangjie input 尸手尸火 (SQSF), four-corner 71327, composition ⿹⿺㇉⿻)

  1. Kangxi radical #187, .

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1433, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44572
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1956, character 34
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4539, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+99AC

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Shizhoupian script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script
                       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*mraːʔ
*mraːʔ
*mraːʔ, *mraːs
*mraːʔ
*mraːʔ
*mraːʔ
*mraːs
*mraːs
*mraːs
*maːʔ
Semi-cursive script Cursive script
   

Pictogram (象形) – a horse with its head facing the left, showing a flowing mane in the wind. In the bronze inscriptions, the head was often simplified into an eye (). The legs eventually evolved into four dots (, unrelated to ).

Contrast with 鹿 (“deer”), which saw a very different development, and 𢊁 (as in ), which is a hybrid: it has the the legs of () but the head of 鹿.

EtymologyEdit

trad.
simp.
variant forms

“Horse” – from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *k-m-raŋ ~ s-raŋ. The sense of “big” is derived from “horse”; compare the English uses of horse.

For the insect prefix sense, see . It has converged with the sense of “big”.

The surname is popularly known to be prevalent among Hui Muslims, where it is likely derived from Arabic مُحَمَّد (muḥammad, Muhammad).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • bé/bée - vernacular;
  • má - literary.
Note:
  • bhê2 - vernacular;
  • ma2 - literary (used in 馬上, 馬虎).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (98)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mˠaX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mᵚaX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /maX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /maɨX/
    Li
    Rong
    /maX/
    Wang
    Li
    /maX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /maX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ X ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mˤraʔ/
    English horse

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 8715
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mraːʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. horse (Classifier: ; )
    2. horse-shaped
    3. (chess) knight
    4. (Chinese chess) knight; horse (on the black side)
    5. Original form of (, “chip for counting”).
    6. big (prefix for nouns)
      /   ―  sháo  ―  ladle (big spoon)
    7. (Southwestern Mandarin, including Sichuan) to bully
    8. (Sichuan) to keep a straight face
    9. Prefix for names of insects, also written as .
    10. Short for 馬祖马祖 (Mǎzǔ).
    11. Short for 馬來西亞马来西亚 (Mǎláixīyà).
    12. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of (“horse”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Taxonomic name
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Harbin
    Jinan
    Muping
    Luoyang
    Jiedian
    Xi'an
    Xining 達冒兒馬
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Guiyang 馬兒
    Liuzhou
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Dongguan
    Taishan
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang
    Hakka Meixian
    Yudu
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 馬仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 馬仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan 馬兒
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Wuqi
    Hsinchu
    Taitung
    Lukang
    Yilan
    Magong
    Penang
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Haifeng
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Loudi

    Coordinate termsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Vietnamese: (, (xiangqi) horse; (chess) knight)

    Others:


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    Japanese stroke order
     

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. horse

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (uma, muma): a pair of horses.
    Kanji in this term
    うま
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.[1] Recorded in the Nihon Shoki as having been brought over from the Korean peninsula kingdom of Baekje, with the earlier reading of ma. The initial m sound was apparently emphasized,[1][2] possibly similar to *mma, becoming then uma or muma, via processes also seen in the word (ume, mume, plum).

    The ma sound denoting "horse" is common to a number of languages of central Asia, where horses were first domesticated, suggesting a possible cognate root. Compare Manchu ᠮᠣᡵᡳᠨ (morin, horse), Mongolian морь (morʹ, horse), Korean (mal, horse), Mandarin (, horse), and Proto-Indo-European *márkos (horse) and descendants such as Irish marc (horse, archaic) or English mare (female horse). More at *márkos.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (counter , hiragana うま, rōmaji uma)

    1. a horse
    2. (shogi) a promoted bishop
    3. a sawhorse: a four-leg stand made of wood or iron for supporting other materials

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    むま
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Shift from uma form, becoming more common starting from the Heian Period. This change later reverted, and muma is now considered obsolete.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana むま, rōmaji muma)

    1. (obsolete) a horse
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4372)
        阿志加良能 美佐可多麻波理 可閇理美須 阿例波久江由久 阿良志乎母 多志夜波婆可流 不破乃世伎 久江弖和波由久 牟麻能都米 都久志能佐伎尓 知麻利為弖 阿例波伊波々牟 母呂々々波 佐祁久等麻乎須 可閇利久麻弖尓
      • c. 935 Tosa Nikki
        ふぢはらのときざね、ふなぢなれど、むまのはなむけす。
      • c. 935 Tosa Nikki
        けふはあをむまをおもへど、かひなし。

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (mal ma))
    (eumhun (seong ma))

    1. horse (in compounds)

    CompoundsEdit

    See alsoEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    CharacterEdit

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    NounEdit

    (ngựa)

    1. horse

    Etymology 2Edit

    NounEdit

    (mứa)

    1. excess

    Etymology 3Edit

    NounEdit

    (mựa)

    1. (dialectal) don't

    Etymology 4Edit

    NounEdit

    (mả)

    1. tomb, grave
      • 1916: Nguyễn Đình Chiểu, Lục Vân Tiên, lines 921–922
        (tiểu)(đồng)(chẳng)(kịp)(hỏi)(han)/𦣰(nằm)(lăn)(bên)(mả)(khóc)(than)(bồi)(hồi)
        Before the page has a chance to pay a visit, / He throws himself down upon the grave, crying, lamenting, fretting.

    Etymology 5Edit

    VerbEdit

    (mở)

    1. to open

    ReferencesEdit