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This Proto-Uralic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Sammallahti (1988) reconstructs *toxe, supposing that only *x is word-medially lost in Samoyedic. According to Aikio (2002: 35, 49), also the semivowels *j, *w were lost before 2nd-syllable *e (compare e.g. *sewe-, *śowe), which would allow the reconstruction *towe.



  1. lake, pond


  • Samoyedic: *to
    • Nganasan: турку
    • Enets:
      • Forest Enets: [Term?] (to)
      • Tundra Enets: [Term?] (to)
    • Nenets:
      • Forest Nenets: [script needed] ()
      • Tundra Nenets: то ()
    • Selkup: [script needed] (to), [script needed] ()
    • Kamassian: [script needed] (tʰu), [script needed] ()
    • Mator: [script needed] (тоа), [script needed] (to)
  • Ugric:
  • Permic:
    • Komi:
      • Komi-Permyak: ты (ty)
      • Komi-Zyrian: ты (ty)
    • Udmurt: ты (ty)


  • Aikio, Ante. 2002. "New and Old Samoyed Etymologies". Finnisch-Ugrische Forschungen 57, pp. 9–57.
  • Rédei, Károly (1986–88) Uralisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Uralic Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó
  • Sammallahti, Pekka. 1988. "Historical phonology of the Uralic languages, with special reference to Samoyed, Ugric and Permic". In Sinor, Denis (ed.), The Uralic Languages: Description, History and Foreign Influences, pp. 478–554. Leiden: Brill. →ISBN.

External linksEdit

  • Entry #1070 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.