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Currently, I'm mostly contributing to entries on Latin.


  • Go through Latin river names ending in -a to find citations that show their gender. According to some grammars, names of this type are masculine in general, but some are feminine in exception to the usual rule for river names.
  • Go through river names in -is to check accusative forms ending in -em vs. -im.
  • Go through fifth-declension nouns to find citations that show usage in the plural. According to some grammars, very few nouns in this declension class have attested usage in the plural for the genitive case or the dative/ablative case.
  • Third declension adjectives of one termination
  • comparative-type adjectives like prior and ocior are currently misclassified as third-declension adjectives of one ending.
  • Add more detailed categories for Latin nouns
  • Look over Module:la-verb, the module for Template:la-conj, to see whether it is possible to make improvements. Currently, some fourth-conjugation verbs like erudio are shown with "contracted" forms like ērudiistī and ērudiimus; I believe that instead of these forms, it would be usual/attested to have ērudīstī and ērudīvimus (no contraction), respectively. Resources for this project: User:Isomorphyc/Sandbox/Some Latin Syncopated Forms, Aspects of the Phonology and Morphology of Classical Latin, András Cser
  • What is the best way to consistently display affix allomorphs/variant forms?
    • ab-, abs- and a- (as in amens), -ulus and -olus.

Syllabification and other pronunciation issues:

    • figure out the best way to display multiple syllabifications for words like migro. Do they exist in "Ecclesiastical Latin", or only in Classical Latin?
      • Based on the way this is described in older sources as a matter of vowels having "common" quantity before these consonant clusters, I suspect that Ecclesiastical Latin, if it had variant pronunciations at all, might only vary in the position of stress. E.g. migro = [miː.grɔ], tenebrae = [ˈtɛː.nɛ.brɛ] or [tɛˈnɛː.brɛ].
    • Does Ecclesiastical Latin really have /j/ as a possibility in words like eicio, abicio, etc.?
    • Does Ecclesiastical Latin have /b.r/, /b.l/, /d.r/ in prefixed words, or is there resyllabification across the prefix-base boundary?
  • Given that syllabification does not have the same significance for poetic meter or stress placement in Ecclesiastical Latin as it does in Classical Latin, maybe Ecclesiastical Latin pronunciations should just not show syllable division. However, the placement of the stress marker is typically dependent on syllabification, so the probem remains in the case of words like obliquus, and for polysyllables such as tenebrae the stress has to be shown for Ecclesiastical Latin.
  • Mispronounced transcriptions: Adramyttium
  • Is there a need to distinguish heterosyllabic mute+liquid clusters across prefix+root boundaries (assimilation possible) from those in Greek words, or Greek-treated words (no assimilation possible)? E.g. "hyd.ros" in "Gorgoneum crinem turpes mutavit in hydros" (Metamorphoses 4.801)

Greek diphthongs in hiatus:

Before consonants:

Voicing of /s/ to [z] in ancient or Ecclesiastical LatinEdit

S+sonorant in Latin:

  • Word-initially, mostly /sm/, which is voiced [zm] in Greek, allegedly since ancient times:
    • smaltum, smaragdus, smaris, smecticus, smegma, Smenus, Smerdis, Smila, smilax, Smyrna/Zmyrna, smyrus. There are spellings with "zm" as "Zymrna", which might be evidence for [zm]. Gaffiot mentions zm spellings for smaragdus, Smyrna, smyrnion/zmyrnium, smyrus.
    • word-initial /sn/ we only have in New-Latin Snelandia, which I'd guess has hardly ever been pronounced aloud
    • word-initial /sl/ we have in slavicus, Slovacia, and a couple related forms. Italian has [zl] in words spelled with "sl", most of which are from s-prefixed words I think (e.g. slabbrare, slacciare). The form "Sclavus" has "c" which it seems might go back to Greek forms. Gaffiot has only Slemnium for sl- words.
    • word-inital /sr/ does not exist in Wiktionary, nor in Gaffiot or L&S.
  • Word-medially, mostly /sm/:
    • /sm/ in many Greek -ma and -mus/-mos words; also in Asmura, Asmīraea, alius-modi, nos-met... trans-m...
    • /sn/ in Asnaus/Asnai; ...s-nam (cuius-, ecquis-, qualis-, quis-); trans-n... (-nato, -navigo, -no, -nominatio, -nomino, -numero)
    • /sl/ in ...s-libet, trans-l..., legis-latio, proslambanomenos
    • /sr/ in Cisrhenanus, Transrhenanus, Israel, disrumpo, disraro

Minor notesEdit

  • Lamse Rhamses vs. decemscalmus, etiamsi, circum- words.
  • odd -culum/-cula words
  • PIE *lewh₃- seems to be two roots, not one (loosen and wash)
  • find information about the inflected form Jehovae
  • Latin verbs ending in -do seem to have a different etymology sometimes from the independent verb do.
  • Latin ki, ke and gi, ge don't display Ecclesiastical pronunciations correctly. e.g. Tōkiō, kerguelensis, atokensis, skrbinensis
    • ki, ke is fixed now, but ge is still off in kerguelensis
  • silvestris suffix
  • -um genitives: unguentum
  • rādula, tegula, regula: of a kind? "The Latin ‘tool’ Suffixes and the Formation of rēgula, tēgula, and trāgula" (Sihler)

Misc pagesEdit