Wiktionary:About Sanskrit

link={{{imglink}}} This is a Wiktionary policy, guideline or common practices page. This is a draft proposal. It is unofficial, and it is unknown whether it is widely accepted by Wiktionary editors.


English Wikipedia has an article on:

The Sanskrit language has no single script associated with it. The system predominant in India historically in the written literature as well as today is Devanagari. Entries in the wiktionary may be in any of the scripts if there is usage; all words should have at least the Devanagari entry.

The same word in other Indic scripts may be referenced under the Alternative spellings header, see WT:ELE

The headword/inflection line should show the Devanagari or other Indic script, with the IAST transliteration in parenthesis, with accent marks on vowels where present; example at अश्व (aśva):

अश्व m (áśva)

Likewise, in Translations sections, e.g. at horse:

  • Sanskrit: {{t|sa|अश्व|m}}

Transliterated entriesEdit

Standard transliteration system for Sanskrit on Wiktionary is exclusively IAST - all the others of dozen or so commonly used transliteration schemes such as Harvard-Kyoto or ISO 15919 are forbidden. Transliterations shall appear in the inflection line with tr= parameter, and everywhere else when they are commonly used, such as mentioned in prose with {{m}}. Transliterations are not mandatory for listings of Sanskrit lexemes, such as inside ====Related terms==== or appendices.

Entries written in IAST transliterations shall not appear in the main namespace. Commonly used English terms originating from Sanskrit that approximately correspond to transliterated Devanagari are subject to WT:CFI for English lexemes, and as such shall be formatted under ==English== rather than ==Sanskrit== L2 headers.

Specific semantic labelsEdit

Sanskrit literature chronologically encompasses more than 3 millenia of written and oral record. As such, owing especially to the particular detachment from spoken language after the codification of Classical Sanskrit by Pāṇini ~ C5 BCE, Sanskrit words came to develop plethora of often widely divergent meanings. Some of these are confined to a particular chronological period, to a particular literary style, or a particular author, work or a tradition. All of these meanings merit inclusion per criteria for inclusion for extinct languages. Monier-Williams' English-Sanskrit dictionary employs several hundreds of abbreviations listed after a particular semantic group (that itself corresponds to a single Wiktionary definition line) for this purpose. Wiktionary shall employ the same set of abbreviations, by means of {{sa-a}} template which accepts the abbrevation without the final dot, and generates a link to the page [[Appendix:Sanskrit abbreviations]] which contains further information on the abbreviation (e.g. its expanded form, what it refers to, link to the corresponding Wikipedia article etc.)

Such abbreviations should come parenthesised after at the end of a definition line. For example, the second definition line of दृष्टि (dṛṣṭi) is in the Monier-Williams dictionary given as:

sight, the faculty of seeing, ŚBr.; Mn.; Suśr. &c;

which translates into Wiktionary syntax as:

# [[sight]], the faculty of seeing ({{sa-a|ŚBr}} {{sa-a|Mn}} {{sa-a|Suśr}} etc.)


For reference purposes the following templates are available for dictionaries that are out of copyright and freely available on various places on the Web:

  • {{R:MW}} – the popular Monier-Williams' Sanskrit-English dictionary. This template accepts single unnamed parameter: the page number in 4-number format. So, for example, for referencing the page 1, this template would be called as {{R:MW|0001}}, for page 234 as {{R:MW|0234}}, for page 1234 as {{R:MW|1234}} and so on.
  • {{R:Cappeller Sanskrit-English}} or {{R:CAP}} – Cappeller's dictionary. See the template page for instructions.
  • {{R:MCD}} – Macdonell's dictionary (1929 reprint). This template accepts a single unnamed parameter: the page number in 3-number format.
  • {{R:WIL}} – Wilson's dictionary. This template accepts a single unnamed parameter: the page number in 3-number format.

For example, the entry on अंश (áṃśa) has the following ===References=== section:



For Sanskrit nouns, the lemma form is the noun stem.

In all respects, the entries should follow the WT:ELE style, there are no language-specific exceptions.