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Etymology 1Edit





  1. magician [since the Middle Kingdom]
    • c. 1550 BCE, Ebers Papyrus, 99, 2-4:
      jr nw rḏjw zjnw nb sḫmt-wꜥb
      nb zꜣw nb ꜥwj ḏbꜥw.f ḥr tp ḥr mkḥꜣ ḥr ḏrwt ḥr st jb ḥr
      ꜥwj ḥr rdwj nb ḫꜣ.f n ḥꜣtj
      As for these [the blood vessels], if any doctor, any wab-priest of Sekhmet,
      or any magician places two hands or his fingers on the head, or on the back of the head, or on the hands, or on the place of the heart, or on
      the two arms, or on each of the two legs, he examines the heart [i.e. the pulse].

Etymology 2Edit




 3ae inf.

  1. (transitive) to guard, to protect
  2. (reflexive) to beware, to guard oneself against
  3. (transitive, in a noun clause, with a subjunctive verb as object) lest

Etymology 3Edit

Most likely derived from a form of the verb zꜣw (to guard, to protect), possibly via an earlier form *zꜣyw.


Proper nounEdit


 m./f. topo.

  1. Saïs, a city in Lower Egypt
Alternative formsEdit


  • James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, 257 page 156, 257.
  • Erman, Adolf; Grapow, Hermann (1929) Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache, volume 3, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, →ISBN, page 420
  • Vycichl, Werner (1983) Dictionnaire Étymologique de la Langue Copte, Leuven: Peeters, →ISBN, page 182
  • Erichsen, Wolja (1954) Demotisches Glossar, Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard, page 408
  • Janet H. Johnson, editor (2001) The Demotic Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago[1], volume S (13.1), Chicago: The University of Chicago, page 44