Appendix:Egyptian pronunciation

The historical pronunciation of Egyptian underwent numerous significant changes over the course of several millennia. The pronunciation of the earlier stages can be reconstructed on the basis of a variety of evidence, such as the pronunciation of Coptic (and comparison between its dialects), transcriptions and loanwords (both to and from other languages), changing orthographic usage and internal evidence, and, most controversially, comparative Afroasiatic evidence. Because the work of reconstructing earlier Egyptian phonology only began to gather steam recently, in the second half of the 20th century, and because some aspects of it remain under debate, Egyptologists traditionally use a conventional ‘Egyptological pronunciation’ that is not intended to reflect any actual historical pronunciation for the sake of convenience.

Wiktionary includes, if possible, both the reconstructed historical pronunciation (according to the prevailing scholarly view) and the modern conventional Egyptological pronunciation. Because of the long-term changes in the language’s historical pronunciation, it is necessary to approach it from a diachronic perspective and select particular stages to include. Below, the changes in the pronunciation of the language over time are detailed, and the stages included by default are highlighted: Old Egyptian, c. 2500 BCE; Middle Egyptian, c. 1700 BCE; Amarna-period Late Egyptian, c. 1350 BCE; and latest Late Egyptian, c. 800 BCE. Following this, explanations are given of the conventions used for representing Egyptian pronunciation at Wiktionary.

Sound changes edit

The large table in this section shows a possible sequence of sound changes leading from Old Egyptian to Coptic with example vocabulary items. The phonological values and history given here broadly follow the reconstruction paradigm of Fecht, Osing, Schenkel, and Loprieno, but draw from the other works given in the references (especially Peust) to revise and clarify some details. Details are generally much less clear for earlier periods than for later periods. Highlighted rows indicate the forms typically given as reconstructions for each stage of the language in Wiktionary entries. When the Coptic dialects break apart, the vocabulary items follow the path of Bohairic Coptic.

The more speculative early phonological history proposed by some followers of the neuere Komparatistik school has largely been excluded, as it relies heavily on debated Afroasiatic correspondences and other uncertain evidence, and as it is far from clear whether such phonological changes, if they took place, happened within the historical period at all. The tendency to try to force Proto-Egyptian consonants into a ‘neat’ phonological system has especially been avoided where other evidence is lacking.

Symbols used:

  • > sound change
  • >! unexpected change
  • / in the following phonetic environment
  • _ stands for the position of the phoneme in the phonetic environment
  • / _ everywhere (in all phonetic environments)
  • # word boundary
  • + morpheme boundary
  • $ syllable boundary
  • V vowel
  • V̀ unstressed vowel
  • V́ stressed vowel
  • C consonant
  • Cʰ aspirated consonant
  • [...] any one of the enclosed phonemes
  • (...) encloses optional elements
  • ∅ null (e.g. phoneme deleted; not to be confused with ø)
  • A, B, F, L, M, S sigla specifying a Coptic or pre-Coptic dialect in which the change occurred
consonants shortly before the historical period
labial dental dorsal pharyngeal glottal
nasal m n
plosive voiceless aspirable p~ t~ k~
ejective/glottalic (ʔ)
voiced b
fricative voiceless f s ç χ ħ h
(unknown) z
rhotic ɾ ʀ
approximant w l j ʕ

The aspirable and ejective series may alternatively be an aspirated and plain voiceless series, respectively; both interpretations are held by numerous scholars. However, typological considerations argue strongly against the latter interpretation.[1]

The actual phonetic values of /z/ and /ʀ/ are extremely unclear. Recent suggestions for the value of the former include /z, t͡s, sʼ, θ/, etc.; the latter, /ʀ, r, l, ɫ, ʎ/, etc.

The phonemic representation of /kʼ/ ⟨g⟩, /qʼ/ ⟨q⟩, /ç/ ⟨ẖ⟩, and /χ/ ⟨ḫ⟩ is purely conventional. In truth, /kʼ/ ⟨g⟩ and /qʼ/ ⟨q⟩ probably share the same place of articulation (velar?) and are distinguished by some unknown feature, and possibly both may be expressed as labiovelars in certain environments. The details remain unclear. Similarly, /ç/ ⟨ẖ⟩ and /χ/ ⟨ḫ⟩ may in fact both be velar or uvular fricatives distinguished by some unknown feature; only the Old Kingdom palatalization of /ç/ in certain cases points to a possible more forward articulation.

vowels
front back
high i~ u~
low a~
sound changes
language stage dating of change sound change “god”
nṯr
“find”
gmt
“hand”
ḏrt
“his hand”
ḏrt.f
“lotus flower”
z(š)šn
“bow”
pḏt
“scribes”
zẖꜣww
Old Egyptian —————————— —————————————————— ˈnaːkaɾ ˈkʼiːmit ˈqʼaːɾat ˈqʼaːɾatVf zaˈçaːçVn ˈpʰiːqʼat zaçˈʀaːwaw
prehistoric to Old Kingdom, c. 3300–2700 BCE? k(ʰ) > c(ʰ) / environment unclear[2][3]
q’ (or k’?) > c’ / environment unclear[4][5]
ˈnaːcaɾ ˈkʼiːmit ˈcʼaːɾat ˈcʼaːɾatVf zaˈçaːçVn ˈpʰiːcʼat zaçˈʀaːwaw
prehistoric to Old Kingdom[6] V̀ > ∅ / posttonic _$[7] ˈnaːcaɾ ˈkʼiːmit ˈcʼaːɾat ˈcʼaɾtVf zaˈçaːçVn ˈpʰiːcʼat zaçˈʀaːwaw
3rd Dynasty onward[8] ç > ʃ / environment unclear[9] ˈnaːcaɾ ˈkʼiːmit ˈcʼaːɾat ˈcʼaɾtVf zaˈʃaːʃVn ˈpʰiːcʼat zaçˈʀaːwaw
6th Dynasty z > s / _[10][11] ˈnaːcaɾ ˈkʼiːmit ˈcʼaːɾat ˈcʼaɾtVf saˈʃaːʃVn ˈpʰiːcʼat saçˈʀaːwaw
late Old Kingdom onward ɾ > j / occasionally _$, especially _#[12] ˈnaːcaɾ ˈkʼiːmit ˈcʼaːɾat ˈcʼaɾtVf saˈʃaːʃVn ˈpʰiːcʼat saçˈʀaːwaw
late Old Kingdom onward, c. 2200 BCE[13] c(ʰ) > t(ʰ) / _(V)([w, j])# except #_[14]
c(ʰ) > t(ʰ) / further unclear environments[15][16]
ˈnaːtaɾ ˈkʼiːmit ˈcʼaːɾat ˈcʼaɾtVf saˈʃaːʃVn ˈpʰiːcʼat saçˈʀaːwaw
by Middle Egyptian[17] j > w / V̀_# except in dual -wj, nisba ending -j, stative .tj, and a few others thereafter written
y
or
ti
(perhaps representing j > w / unstressed u_#?)[18]
ˈnaːtaɾ ˈkʼiːmit ˈcʼaːɾat ˈcʼaɾtVf saˈʃaːʃVn ˈpʰiːcʼat saçˈʀaːwaw
Middle Egyptian First Intermediate Period[19] w > j / V́_V̀ except _V̀[w, j] and a handful of exceptional words[20] ˈnaːtaɾ ˈkʼiːmit ˈcʼaːɾat ˈcʼaɾtVf >! ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːcʼat saçˈʀaːwaw
early Middle Kingdom onward[21] cʼ > tʼ / _(V)([w, j])# except #_[22]
cʼ > tʼ / _(V)[b, h][23]
cʼ > tʼ / further unclear environments, but never _(V)[ʀ, ʕ, f][24][25]
ˈnaːtaɾ ˈkʼiːmit ˈtʼaːɾat ˈtʼaɾtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼat saçˈʀaːwaw
Middle Kingdom onward[26] ʕ > j / often _(V)ħ, ħ(V)_[27]
ʕ > j / sometimes +_ in the same word as χ[28]
ˈnaːtaɾ ˈkʼiːmit ˈtʼaːɾat ˈtʼaɾtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼat saçˈʀaːwaw
Middle Kingdom ɾ > ʔ / _$[29][30] ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmit ˈtʼaːɾat ˈtʼaʔtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼat saçˈʀaːwaw
Middle Kingdom[31] n(V̀)w > (V̀)m / _ if another n or ʀ is in the word[32] ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmit ˈtʼaːɾat ˈtʼaʔtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼat saçˈʀaːwaw
by the late Middle Kingdom c(ʰ) > t͡ʃ(ʰ) / _
cʼ > t͡ʃʼ / _
ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmit ˈtʼaːɾat ˈtʼaʔtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼat saçˈʀaːwaw
by the New Kingdom,[33] mid second millennium BCE t(ʰ) > ʔ / _$ except V̀_[ɾ, ħ, h][34][35] ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmiʔ ˈtʼaːɾaʔ ˈtʼaʔtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼaʔ saçˈʀaːwaw
by the New Kingdom ∅ > ʔə / frequently #_CV̀ʀV́[36] ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmiʔ ˈtʼaːɾaʔ ˈtʼaʔtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼaʔ saçˈʀaːwaw
perhaps by the New Kingdom, possibly continuing at various later times[37] n > ∅ (or j?) / sporadic, in a few words[38]
m > ∅ / rare, in very few words[39]
ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmiʔ ˈtʼaːɾaʔ ˈtʼaʔtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼaʔ saçˈʀaːwaw
by c. 1400 BCE V́ʀ > V́ː / _C occasionally[40] ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmiʔ ˈtʼaːɾaʔ ˈtʼaʔtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼaʔ saçˈʀaːwaw
late Middle Kingdom to early New Kingdom, by c. 1400 BCE[41] ʀ > ɾ / sporadic, in a few words[42][43]
ʀ > l / sporadic, in a few words[44]
ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmiʔ ˈtʼaːɾaʔ ˈtʼaʔtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼaʔ saçˈʀaːwaw
late Middle Kingdom to early New Kingdom, by c. 1400 BCE[45] ʀ > j / _[46][47] ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmiʔ ˈtʼaːɾaʔ ˈtʼaʔtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼaʔ saçˈjaːwaw
Second Intermediate Period[48] ˈa(ː) > ˈi(ː) / _(CV)j# usually in certain triliteral verb forms (infinitives and perfective active participles)[49] ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmiʔ ˈtʼaːɾaʔ ˈtʼaʔtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼaʔ saçˈjaːwaw
late Middle Kingdom to early New Kingdom, by c. 1400 BCE C[j, w] > [j, w]C / often V́_ except V́_V̀[j, w][50][51] ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmiʔ ˈtʼaːɾaʔ ˈtʼaʔtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼaʔ saçˈjaːwaw
late Middle Kingdom to early New Kingdom, by c. 1400 BCE According to Osing:

waw > wə / [ˈiː, ˈuː]_#[52]
waw > jə / ˈaː_#[53]
[jaw, waj] > wə / V́_#[54]
[w, j]i[w, j] > jə / [ˈaː, ˈuː]_#[55]
[w, j]i[w, j] > ʔə / ˈiː_#[56]
[w, j]u[w, j] > ʔə / V́_#[57]
jaj > ʔə / V́_#[58]

According to Peust (modified to match the syllable structure rules used here):

wV[w, j] > wə / V́_[59]
jVw > wə, jə, or (only with /j/ from /ʀ/) ʔə (unpredictable) / V́_[60]
jVj > jə or (rarely) ʔə / V́_[61]
ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmiʔ ˈtʼaːɾaʔ ˈtʼaʔtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼaʔ saçˈjaːjə
late Middle Kingdom to early New Kingdom, by c. 1400 BCE[62] [j, w] > ∅ / V̀_#[63][64]
j > ʔ / V́_V̀[65][66]
j > ʔ / occasionally V́_$;[67] also generally V́_[j, w][68]
w > ʔ / occasionally ˈu_$[69]
S j > ʔ / V́[ʔ, j]_[70]
j > ʔ / pretonic _[V̀, $][71][72]
w > ʔ / sometimes in pretonic _[V̀, $], environment unclear[73]
j > ʔ / _V́ in most verbs (by analogical leveling)[74]
j > ʔ / usually _ˈuː[75]
j > ʔ / in a few other words _V́[76]
ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmiʔ ˈtʼaːɾaʔ ˈtʼaʔtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼaʔ saçˈʔaːjə
New Kingdom, by c. 1350 BCE AFLMS unstressed a > u / #ʔ_[m, p(ʰ), b, f, w] sometimes[77] ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmiʔ ˈtʼaːɾaʔ ˈtʼaʔtVf ˈsaːʃVn ˈpʰiːtʼaʔ saçˈʔaːjə
New Kingdom, by c. 1350 BCE[78] V̀ > ə / _ except #[ʔ, ʕ]_ and _ʔ#[79][80]
V̀ > ə / ʔ_ʔ#[81][82]
V̀ > a / _ʔ# except ʔ_[83][84]
V̀ > a / #ʕ_[85][86]
unstressed i > ə / #ʔ_[87]
AB(F)LMS unstressed u > ə / #ʔ_[88]
(F) unstressed u > a / #ʔ_ sometimes[89]
ˈnaːtaʔ ˈkʼiːmaʔ ˈtʼaːɾaʔ ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsaːʃən ˈpʰiːtʼaʔ səçˈʔaːjə
New Kingdom, by c. 1350 BCE ʔ > ∅ / _ except #_ and V́_[90] ˈnaːta ˈkʼiːma ˈtʼaːɾa ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsaːʃən ˈpʰiːtʼa səçˈaːjə
New Kingdom, by c. 1350 BCE[91][92] ˈi > ˈe / _[93][94] ˈnaːta ˈkʼiːma ˈtʼaːɾa ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsaːʃən ˈpʰiːtʼa səçˈaːjə
Late Egyptian New Kingdom, by c. 1350 BCE[95] ˈiː > ˈeː / _[ʕ, j][96][97] ˈnaːta ˈkʼiːma ˈtʼaːɾa ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsaːʃən ˈpʰiːtʼa səçˈaːjə
AL unstressed a > ə / sometimes #[ʔ, ʕ]_ if the stressed vowel is ˈiː~ˈe[98] ˈnaːta ˈkʼiːma ˈtʼaːɾa ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsaːʃən ˈpʰiːtʼa səçˈaːjə
New Kingdom[99] b > p / V́_#[100][101] ˈnaːta ˈkʼiːma ˈtʼaːɾa ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsaːʃən ˈpʰiːtʼa səˈçaːjə
New Kingdom[102] b > β / _ except B _(ə(ʕ))#[103][104] ˈnaːta ˈkʼiːma ˈtʼaːɾa ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsaːʃən ˈpʰiːtʼa səˈçaːjə
late New Kingdom, c. 1200–1000 BCE[105] Canaanite shift: ˈaː > ˈoː / _[106][107] ˈnoːta ˈkʼiːma ˈtʼoːɾa ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtʼa səˈçoːjə
late New Kingdom, after c. 1200 BCE ə > ∅ / _# usually, but (unpredictably) sometimes not[108]
unstressed a > ə / _#[109][110]
ˈnoːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtʼə səˈçoːj
late New Kingdom, after c. 1200 BCE j > i / C_#[111][112]
w > uː / C_#[113]
ʕ > əʕ / C_#[114]
ˈnoːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtʼə səˈçoːj
Third Intermediate Period, c. 1000–800 BCE ˈuː > ˈeː / _[115][116] ˈnoːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtʼə səˈçoːj
Third Intermediate Period, c. 1000–800 BCE[117] ˈu > ˈø / _[118][119] ˈnoːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtʼə səˈçoːj
Third Intermediate Period, c. 1000–800 BCE A(L) ˈoː > ˈuː / _[ʔ, ʕ][120]
A(L) ˈeː > ˈiː / _[ʔ, ʕ][121]
A(L) ˈa > ˈo~ˈoː / _[ʔ, ʕ] sometimes, unpredictably[122][123]
ˈnoːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtʼə səˈçoːj
Third Intermediate Period, starting c. 1000 BCE[124] tʼ > t(ʰ) / _ except _V́[125][126]
tʃʼ > tʃ(ʰ) / _ except _V́[127][128]
[kʼ, qʼ] > k(ʰ) / _ except _V́[129][130]
ˈnoːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə səˈçoːj
BS ˈeː > ˈe / _ħ[131]
B ˈoː > ˈo / _ħ[132]
ˈnoːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə səˈçoːj
Third Intermediate Period onward ˈoː > ˈuː / [m, n]([h, ħ])_ except B _w[133] ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə səˈçoːj
Third Intermediate Period to Late Period[134] ˈoː > ˈuː / _[ɾ, l] chiefly in Semitic loanwords[135]
ˈeː > ˈiː / sometimes _ɾ, perhaps chiefly in loanwords[136]
ˈoː > ˈuː / _j[137]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə səˈçuːj
Demotic c. 700–450 BCE B ˈa > ˈoː / _w$ except sometimes _w#[138]
B ˈa > ˈoː / _j$ except sometimes _j#, and except when followed by a suffix pronoun[139]
B ˈe > ˈoː / _w$ except sometimes _w#[140]
B ˈe > ˈeː / _j$ except sometimes _j#[141]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼaʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə səˈçuːj
c. 700–450 BCE BFMS ˈa > ˈo / _ except _[ħ, χ, ç, ʕ][142][143][144]
BFMS ˈe > ˈa / _ except BS _[h, β, l, m, n, ɾ] and usually S _ʔ#[145]
BFMS ˈø > ˈa / _ except _[ʔ, ʕ][146]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə səˈçuːj
between 669 and 420 BCE[147][148] ˈiː > ˈeː / [m, n]([h, ħ])_ except _[m, n][149] ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə səˈçuːj
c. 700 BCE–100 CE M ˈoː > ˈo / _ except _[ʔ, ʕ][150] ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə səˈçuːj
c. 700 BCE–100 CE A ˈe([ʔ, ʕ])w > ˈo~ˈoː / [m, n]([h, ħ])_# or possibly [m, n]([h, ħ])_ in general[151] ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə səˈçuːj
ABLS ˈø > ˈe / _[152][153]
FM ˈø > ˈeː / _[154]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə səˈçuːj
p > β / _[t(ʰ), tʼ] except #_[155]
p > β / occasionally [t(ʰ), tʼ]_[156]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə səˈçuːj
β > w or ∅ / occasionally, perhaps limited to _$[157] ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtəf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə səˈçuːj
ə > ∅ / often except #[ʔ, ʕ]_ and _(ʕ)#[158]
ə > a / occasionally [ħ, χ]_ or _[ħ, χ][159]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sçuːj
wə > ʔuː / #_[160]
AS wə > uː / C_# except ʔ_#[161]
B jə > j (or i?) / V́(ʔ)_#[162]
S jə > ∅ / V́(ʔ)_#[163]
ʔə > ∅ / V́_ʕ# sometimes[164]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sçuːj
Cː > C / generally[165]
Cː > mC or nC / occasionally in Semitic loanwords[166]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sçuːj
n > r / _m sometimes[167]
n > l / in the same word as m or β sometimes[168]
m > β / in the same word as n rarely[169]
β > m / in the same word as n rarely[170]
other changes of one sonorant into another in the presence of a third occur sporadically[171]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sçuːj
B ʕ > ħ / sporadic and irregular[172] ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sçuːj
S f > ɸ / _uː[173] ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sçuːj
perhaps by c. 600 BCE[174] χ > k(ʰ) / sporadic, in a few words[175] ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sçuːj
after c. 450 BCE B ə > ∅ / _ʕ#[176][177]
C(ə)ʕ > ʕC(ə) / V́_[178][179]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sçuːj
Late Period, after c. 400 BCE[180] qʼ > kʲʼ / chiefly in Semitic loanwords[181]
kʼ > kʲʼ / in most cases; not fully predictable[182]
k(ʰ) > kʲ(ʰ) / in half of cases, but perhaps chiefly _a or _V́; environment unclear[183]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʲʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sçuːj
n > m / _([h, ħ])[p(ʰ), m, qʼ][184]
B n > m / _([h, ħ])[β, b] additionally[185]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʲʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sçuːj
Late Period, after c. 400 BCE qʼ > kʼ / _[186] ˈnuːtə ˈkʲʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sçuːj
Late Period, c. 400–300 BCE[187] ç > x / _[188][189] ˈnuːtə ˈkʲʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sxuːj
Late Period, c. 400–300 BCE[190] BFLMS χ > ç / in most cases; environment unclear[191][192]
χ > x / otherwise[193][194]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʲʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈsoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sxuːj
Late Period to Ptolemaic Period[195] s > ʃ / _ in the same word as ʃ[196]
B s > ç / _ in the same word as ç[197]
s > ʃ / often if t͡ʃʼ or t͡ʃ(ʰ) follow somewhere in the same word[198]
s > ʃ / often _kʲʼ and _kʲ(ʰ)[199]
ʃʃ > ʃ / _[200]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʲʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sxuːj
Late Period to Ptolemaic Period, c. 450 BCE–100 CE B ħ > ʔ / #_a (unstressed)[201]
AS ħ > ʔ / sporadic, in a few words[202]
ˈnuːtə ˈkʲʼiːmə ˈtʼoːɾə ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːtə sxuːj
by c. 250 BCE[203] BF ə > i / _(ʕ)#[204]
A(L)MS except L6 i > ə / _(ʕ)# usually, but sometimes > ∅ instead[205]
ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
by c. 200 BCE[206] V > Vn / [m, n]_ occasionally[207] ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
by the 1st century CE S h > ∅ / Cʰ_[208] ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
Ptolemaic Period, c. 100–1 BCE AFLMS Cʰ > C / _[209] ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
by c. 1 CE S ə > ∅ / V́(ʔ)ʕ_#[210] ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
Roman Period, c. 100 CE[211] F ɾ > l / in most cases; environment unclear[212] ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
Roman Period, c. 100 CE[213] FM ˈa > ˈe / _[214]
FM ˈo > ˈa / _[215][216]
ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
Roman Period, by c. 100 CE[217] ħ > h / _[218][219] ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
Roman Period, after c. 100 CE B h > ∅ / sometimes Cʰ_[220] ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
Roman Period, after c. 100 CE F ˈe > ˈeː / _j ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
Roman Period, after c. 100 CE ALMS ˈe > ∅ / _[β, l, m, n, ɾ]C[221]
ALMS ˈe > [β, l, m, n, ɾ] / _[β, l, m, n, ɾ][V, #][222]
F ˈe > ˈeː or sometimes ˈuː / _[β, l, m, n, ɾ]C
F ˈe > ˈeː[β, l, m, n, ɾ] or sometimes ˈuː[β, l, m, n, ɾ] / _[β, l, m, n, ɾ][V, #]
ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
Coptic S k > ŋ / m_#[223]
S nk > ŋ / _#[224]
ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
S m > mn / _t$[225] ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
(L) Vn > Vʔ(n) / _C except _h[226] ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
chiefly B m > mb / _$[r, l][227]
chiefly B m > mp / _$[t, s, ʃ][228]
ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
B [β, l, m, n, ɾ] > j[β, l, m, n, ɾ] / _i frequently[229]
B [m, n] > [m, n]i / j_#[230]
B [m, n] > [m, n]uː / w_# optionally (in free variation)[231]
A [β, l, m, n, ɾ] > [β, l, m, n, ɾ]ə / C_#, including Vʔ_#, except C[β, l, m, n, ɾ]_#[232]
ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
early Roman Period (Demotic to Old Coptic)[233] ʕ > ʔ / #_ and V́_[234][235]
ʕ > ∅ / otherwise[236]
ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼoʔtf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
B(F)M ʔ > ∅ / _[237][238] ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼotf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
Roman Period, c. 200 CE[239] FLMS x > h / _[240][241] ˈnuːti ˈkʲʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼotf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
Roman Period, early Coptic BFLMS ç > ʃ / _[242][243]
B kʲʼ > t͡ʃʼ / _[244]
B kʲ(ʰ) > t͡ʃ(ʰ) / _[245]
ˈnuːti ˈt͡ʃʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼotf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
(A)BFLMS f[s, ʃ, x, h] > [s, ʃ, x, h]f / _+[246]
(A)BFLMS s[ʃ, x, h] > [ʃ, x, h]s / _+[247]
(A)BFLMS ʃ[x, h] > [x, h]ʃ / _+[248]
ˈnuːti ˈt͡ʃʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼotf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
by c. 900 CE ˈeː > ˈiː / sometimes in Greek loanwords, unpredictably[249]
ˈeː > ˈiː / if followed by a syllable without i(ː) – in native words sometimes, in Greek loanwords normally[250]
ˈnuːti ˈt͡ʃʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼotf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
by c. 900 CE [ˈeː, ˈe] > ˈa / _[251] ˈnuːti ˈt͡ʃʼiːmi ˈtʼoːɾi ˈtʼotf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːti sxuːj
c. 1300–1400 CE[252] B p > b / _ except _#[253]
B [tʼ, t] > d / _ except _#[254]
B [t͡ʃʼ, t͡ʃ] > d͡ʒ / _ except _#[255]
B [kʼ, k] > g / _ except _#[256]
ˈnuːdi ˈd͡ʒiːmi ˈdoːɾi ˈdodf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpʰiːdi sxuːj
c. 1300–1400 CE[257] B Cʰ > C / _[258] ˈnuːdi ˈd͡ʒiːmi ˈdoːɾi ˈdodf ˈʃoːʃən ˈpiːdi sxuːj
c. 1400 CE B p > b / _[259]
B g > k / _[260]
B β > w / _[261]
B t͡ʃ > ʃ / _[262]
B d͡ʒ > ɟ / _[263]
ˈnuːdi ˈɟiːmi ˈdoːɾi ˈdodf ˈʃoːʃən ˈbiːdi sxuːj
1858–c. 1940 CE B Coptic pronunciation reform (introduction of artificial spelling pronunciation based on modern Greek) ˈnuti ˈd͡ʒimi ˈtori ˈtotef ˈʃoʃen ˈfiti sxuj
language stage dating of change sound change “god”
ⲛⲟⲩϯ
nouti
“find”
ϫⲓⲙⲓ
čimi
“hand”
ⲧⲱⲣⲓ
tōri
“his hand”
ⲧⲟⲧϥ
totf
“lily”
ϣⲱϣⲉⲛ
šōšen
“bow”
ⲫⲓϯ
phiti
“scribes”
ⲥϧⲟⲩⲓ
sxoui

Consonants edit

The chart below shows the way in which Egyptian consonants are represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in Wiktionary entries. Most of the diachronic changes in the chart reflect the sound changes given above; some, however, merely represent changes in orthographical conventions.

Consonants
Uniliteral
sign
Transliteration IPA
Old Egyptian
c. 2500 BCE
Middle Egyptian
c. 1700 BCE
Late Egyptian
c. 800 BCE
Egyptological pronunciation
c. 2000 CE
A
/ʀ/ /ʀ/ /ʔ/, /j/, ∅, (/ɾ/, /l/) /ɑ/
i
j /j/ /j/ /ʔ/, /j/, ∅ /i/
y
ii
y /j/ + /j/ /j/ //
a
/ʕ/ /ʕ/ /ʕ/ /ɑː/
w
w /w/ /w/ /w/, /ʔ/, ∅ //, /w/
b
b /b/ /b/ /β/, /p/ /b/
p
p /p/ /p/ /p/ /p/
f
f /f/ /f/ /f/ /f/
m
m /m/ /m/ /m/, /n/ /m/
n
n /n/ /n/ /n/, /l/ /n/
r
r /ɾ/, /l/ /ɾ/, /l/, /ʔ/, /j/ /ɾ/, /l/, /ʔ/, /j/, ∅ /r/
h
h /h/ /h/ /h/ /h/
H
/ħ/ /ħ/ /ħ/ /ħ/
x
/χ/ /χ/ /χ/ /x/
X
/ç/ /ç/ /ç/ /ç/
z
z /z/ /s/ /s/ /z/
s
s /s/ /s/ /s/ /s/
S
š /ʃ/ /ʃ/ /ʃ/ /ʃ/
q
q // // // /k/
k
k /k/ /k/ /k/ /k/
g
g // // // /ɡ/
t
t /t/ /t/, /t͡ʃ/, /ʔ/ /t/, /t͡ʃ/, /ʔ/, ∅ /t/
T
/c/ /t͡ʃ/, /t/, /ʔ/ /t͡ʃ/, /t/, /ʔ/, ∅ /t͡ʃ/
d
d // //, /t͡ʃʼ/ //, /t͡ʃʼ/ /d/
D
// /t͡ʃʼ/, // /t͡ʃʼ/, // /d͡ʒ/

Egyptological pronunciation edit

The conventional modern Egyptological pronunciation does not reflect any actual historical pronunciation, but is directly derived from the written representation of Egyptian by a series of arbitrary conventions.

The consonants of Egyptian are given the values listed in the table above under ‘Egyptological pronunciation’; as shown, some of them are pronounced as vowels, following abandoned 19th-century ideas about the historical Egyptian pronunciation. ⟨w⟩ is generally rendered /uː/, but root-initially (and exceptionally elsewhere) many Egyptologists instead pronounce it as /w/. Some speakers add a glottal stop in various places, such as before pronominal suffixes and between identical vowels.

An epenthetic vowel /ɛ/ is inserted as needed to break up consonant clusters, so that no more than one consonant in a row starts or ends each word, and no more than two consonants appear sequentially within a word. The causative prefix s- and all -w suffixes (and, optionally, the feminine suffix -t) are ignored when determining where to insert /ɛ/ in the rest of the word. Words consisting of only a single consonant have /ɛ/ added before them if the consonant is a sonorant; otherwise, /ɛ/ is added after them. An /ɛ/ can also be added to separate two identical consonants. In words containing a reduplication, the two reduplicated parts are pronounced identically and no /ɛ/ intervenes between them.

Exceptions to these conventions are rare; a significant one is that ꜥnḫ is pronounced /ɑːnx/ instead of the expected /ɑːnɛx/.

References edit

  • Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN
  • Loprieno, Antonio (2001) “From Ancient Egyptian to Coptic” in Haspelmath, Martin et al. (eds.), Language Typology and Language Universals
  • Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[206], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR
  • Allen, James P. (2013) The Ancient Egyptian Language: An Historical Study, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Takács, Gábor (2015) “Questions of Egyptian Historical Phonology and Afro-Asiatic” (review of Allen 2013)
  • Gensler, Orin D. (2014) “A typological look at Egyptian *d > ʕ” in Grossman, Eitan; Haspelmath, Martin; and Richter, Tonio Sebastian (eds.), Egyptian-Coptic Linguistics in Typological Perspective
  • Hoch, James E. (1994) Semitic Words in Egyptian Texts of the New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period, Princeton: Princeton University Press, →ISBN
  • Kasser, Rodolophe (1991), “Dialect P (or Proto-Theban)”, in Atiya, Aziz Suryal, editor, The Coptic Encyclopedia, volume 8, New York: Macmillan, →ISBN
  • Kasser, Rodolophe (1991), “ꜥAyin”, in Atiya, Aziz Suryal, editor, The Coptic Encyclopedia, volume 8, New York: Macmillan, →ISBN
  • Kasser, Rodolophe (1991), “Protodialect”, in Atiya, Aziz Suryal, editor, The Coptic Encyclopedia, volume 8, New York: Macmillan, →ISBN
  • Satzinger, Helmut (2017) “Dialectical Variation of the Egyptian-Coptic Language in the Course of Its Four Millennia of Attested History” in Journal of the Canadian Society for Coptic Studies 9
  • Satzinger, Helmut (1990) “On the Prehistory of the Coptic Dialects” in Acts of the Third International Congress of Coptic Studies, Warsaw
  • Satzinger, Helmut (2010) “Scratchy Sounds Getting Smooth: the Egyptian Velar Fricatives and Their Palatalization” in CAMSEMUD 2007: Proceedings of the 13th Italian Meeting of Afro-Asiatic Linguistics
  • Callender, John Bryan (1987) “Plural Formation in Egyptian” in Journal of Near Eastern Studies 46 no. 1
  • Edel, Elmar (1961), “Neues Material zur Herkunft der auslautenden Vokale -ⲉ und -ⲓ im Koptischen”, in Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, volume 86, issue 1, →DOI
  • Peust, Carsten (1992) “Zur Herkunft des koptischen ⲏ” in Lingua Aegyptia, volume 2, pages 117–125

Works yet to be consulted:

  • Schenkel, Wolfgang (1990) Einführung in die altägyptische Sprachwissenschaft
  • Osing, Jürgen (1976) Die Nominalbildung des Ägyptischen
  • Schenkel, Wolfgang (1983) Zur Rekonstruktion der deverbalen Nominalbildung des Aegyptischen, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz
  • Schenkel, Wolfgang (2009) “Zur Silbenstruktur des Ägyptischen” in Lingua Aegyptia vol. 17
  • Hintze, Fritz (1980) “Zur Koptischen Phonologie” in Enchoria: Zeitschrift für Demotistik und Koptologie
  • Takács, Gábor (1999) Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian, volume 1, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, →ISBN
  • Zeidler, Jürgen (1995) “Die Entwicklung der Vortonsilben-Vokale im Neuägyptischen” in Per aspera ad astra: Festschrift Wolfgang Schenkel zum 59. Geburtstag
  • Vycichl, Werner (1990) La vocalisation de la langue égyptienne

Citations:

  1. ^ Peust, Carsten (2008) “On Consonant Frequency in Egyptian and Other Languages” in Lingua Aegyptia volume 16, pages 105–134
  2. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[1], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 119–120
  3. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 31–32
  4. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[2], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 107, 120
  5. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 31–32
  6. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 37
  7. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 37
  8. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[3], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 117: “While the palatalization started in Dynasty 3 and the new sign ⟨ẖ⟩ came into use for expressing the non-palatalized sound, some of the words that evaded palatalization could still be written with ⟨š⟩ by historical orthography until Dynasty 6.”
  9. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[4], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 115–117, 120
  10. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[5], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 125–126
  11. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 34
  12. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[6], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 140, 243
  13. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[7], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 123: “Around the end of the Old Kingdom, ⟨ṯ⟩ and ⟨ḏ⟩ frequently merged with ⟨t⟩ and ⟨d⟩, a process which I call palatal fronting.”
  14. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[8], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 123–125
  15. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[9], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 123–125
  16. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 38
  17. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[10], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 137
  18. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[11], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 137–138
  19. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[12], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 139
  20. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[13], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 139
  21. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[14], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 123: “Around the end of the Old Kingdom, ⟨ṯ⟩ and ⟨ḏ⟩ frequently merged with ⟨t⟩ and ⟨d⟩, a process which I call palatal fronting.”
  22. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[15], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 123–125
  23. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[16], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 123–125
  24. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[17], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 123–125
  25. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 38
  26. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[18], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 103–104
  27. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[19], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 103–104
  28. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[20], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 104
  29. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[21], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 151–156, 255
  30. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 38
  31. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[22], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 163–164:
    Writings with m first appear in the Middle Kingdom and more regularly in the New Kingdom. We conclude that the sound change took place approximately at the time of the Middle Kingdom, but historical orthography conserved the older writing ⟨nw⟩ for a while, especially in the divine name rnn-wt.t. 2) The sound change took place before w was lost according to the rules discussed in § 3.14.2.7.
  32. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[23], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 163–165
  33. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[24], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 141
  34. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[25], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 141, 151–155, 255
  35. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 38
  36. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[26], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 192–193
  37. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[27], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 157:
    Certain Egyptian writings suggest that the loss of -n could already have taken place by the New Kingdom, as was the case for most other consonantal losses. However, the place name ḥw.t-nn-nzw (written ḫi-ni-in-ši in Neo-Assyrian transcription, 7th century BC) lost its second n as late as the mid of the 1st millennium BC (written ανυσις by Herodotos, Coptic sϩⲛⲏⲥ) (cf. Peust 1992: i23f.).
  38. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[28], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 157–158
  39. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[29], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 158
  40. ^ Peust describes this rule but rejects it, suggesting as an alternative explanation that the stressed vowel in fact simply follows /ʀ/ in these cases. Other authors, however, broadly accept it. The question bears further investigation. See Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[30], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 187.
  41. ^ Peust provides examples that show that words were generally unchanged in the Middle Kingdom and first show changes starting with Late Egyptian; since the loss of /ʀ/ preceded the start of Late Egyptian, this loss provides a terminus ante quem. See Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[31], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 131–132.
  42. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[32], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 127, 131–132
  43. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 245
  44. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[33], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 127, 131
  45. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[34], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 127, 129, 142:
    Most instances of the phoneme written as ⟨ꜣ⟩ merged with /j/ after the Middle Kingdom, and it thus lost its liquid character […] the sound written ⟨ꜣ⟩ had already merged with ⟨j⟩ by the New Kingdom […] ⟨ꜣ⟩, originally a liquid /r/, had completely conflated with ⟨j⟩ by the New Kingdom at the latest (cf. Westendorf 1962: §22).
  46. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[35], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 127, 129, 142, 243
  47. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 38
  48. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[36], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 247
  49. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[37], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 246–248
  50. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[38], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 236
  51. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 44–45
  52. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[39], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 146
  53. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[40], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 146
  54. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[41], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 146
  55. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[42], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 146
  56. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[43], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 146
  57. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[44], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 146
  58. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[45], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 146
  59. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[46], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 146–148
  60. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[47], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 146–148
  61. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[48], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 146–148
  62. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[49], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 142:
    From the New Kingdom on, ⟨j⟩, ⟨ꜣ⟩ and ⟨w⟩ are frequently either omitted in writing or else written where they are unexpected etymologically (this is not true for ⟨j⟩, ⟨ꜣ⟩, ⟨w⟩ in word-initial position). […] To a much lesser degree, some of these effects can be observed as early as in the Old Kingdom (Edel 1955/64: I, §§ 43-45).
  63. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[50], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 150
  64. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 38
  65. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[51], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 148–149
  66. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 33, 35, 38
  67. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[52], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 145
  68. ^ See the examples given in Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[53], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 150–151.
  69. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[54], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 145
  70. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[55], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 150–151
  71. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[56], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 149
  72. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 33, 35
  73. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[57], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 149
  74. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[58], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 143
  75. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[59], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 144
  76. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[60], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 144
  77. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[61], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 251–252
  78. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[62], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 259
  79. ^ For word-final vowel reduction see Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[63], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 259.
  80. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 39
  81. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[64], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 255: “If the remaining consonant(s) between the stressed vowel and the final vowel are lost as well, then the final vowel is absorbed by the stressed vowel.”
  82. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 39
  83. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[65], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 255, 259
  84. ^ Described together with future change to schwa in Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 39.
  85. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[66], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 251–252
  86. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 46
  87. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[67], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 251–252
  88. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[68], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 251–252
  89. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[69], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 251–252
  90. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 33, 35
  91. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[70], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 223–224
  92. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 38
  93. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[71], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 222–226
  94. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 38
  95. ^ Peust, Carsten (1992) “Zur Herkunft des koptischen ⲏ” in Lingua Aegyptia, volume 2, page 118: “Wo hingegen ⲏ auf *ī zurückgeht, liegt dieses schon in mittelbabylonischer Zeit als ē vor: ⲣⲏ “Sonne” < Rꜥw – mbab. re-a, ⲙϩⲏ “Atem” < mḥy.t “Nordwind” – mbab. ma-ḫe-e.”
  96. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[72], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 222–224, 231, 243–244
  97. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 39, 247
  98. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[73], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 251–252
  99. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[74], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 85: “Only as concerns the distinction of ⟨p⟩ and ⟨b⟩, cases of confusion can already be observed in the New (or perhaps even Middle) Kingdom (cf. Ward 1975).”
  100. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[75], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 135
  101. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 41
  102. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[76], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 79: “I argue that both ⟨b⟩ and ⟨ꜥ⟩ (= /d/) probably remained stops until the Middle Kingdom.”
  103. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[77], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 133, 135–136
  104. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 41
  105. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 38–39
  106. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[78], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 222–223, 225–226, 231
  107. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 38
  108. ^ Peust thinks all exceptions are analogical. See in general Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[79], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 257–259.
  109. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[80], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 253–255
  110. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 39
  111. ^ Edel, Elmar (1961), “Neues Material zur Herkunft der auslautenden Vokale -ⲉ und -ⲓ im Koptischen”, in Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, volume 86, issue 1, →DOI
  112. ^ Peust notes this change explicitly only for ‘certain varieties of Lycopolitan’ (i.e. dialect L6), but cuneiform transcriptions show that it happened in other dialects as well before merging with final schwa; see Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[81], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 151, 258.
  113. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[82], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 258
  114. ^ A final /Cʕ/ that has lost a subsequent vowel and glide is treated identically to /Cəʕ/ from a reduced, originally word-final syllable; see Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[83], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 257.
  115. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[84], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 222–224, 226, 231–232
  116. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 38
  117. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 39
  118. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[85], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 222–228
  119. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 39
  120. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[86], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 214
  121. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[87], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 214
  122. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[88], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 214: “Where Sahidic has ⲟⲟ, Akhmimic can have either ⲁⲁ or ⲟⲟ, a rule is not known.”
  123. ^ Satzinger, Helmut (2017) “Dialectical Variation of the Egyptian-Coptic Language in the Course of Its Four Millennia of Attested History” in Journal of the Canadian Society for Coptic Studies 9, page 43
  124. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[89], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 84–85, 114:
    Both classes of stops were distinguished strictly until about 1000BC. There is no confusion between written ⟨k⟩ and ⟨q⟩/⟨g⟩ until the New Kingdom. This also holds true for the palatals ⟨ṯ⟩ — ⟨ḏ⟩ and dentals ⟨t⟩ — ⟨d⟩. Only as concerns the distinction of ⟨p⟩ and ⟨b⟩, cases of confusion can already be observed in the New (or perhaps even Middle) Kingdom (cf. Ward 1975). After the New Kingdom, confusion between both series of stops becomes very frequent in Egyptian writing. […] Immediately following Dynasty 20, much confusion arises in writing velar stops, and it is unclear how graphemes and phonemes relate at that time.
  125. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[90], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 84–85
  126. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 38, 42
  127. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[91], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 84–85
  128. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 38, 42
  129. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[92], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 84–85, 114
  130. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 38, 42
  131. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[93], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 237
  132. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[94], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 237
  133. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[95], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 99, 223, 225–226, 231, 238–240
  134. ^ As demonstrated by loanwords loaned at various times, the sound change ˈoː > ˈuː / _[ɾ, l] was operational after the New Kingdom, but no longer so on Semitic loanwords taken up in Demotic times; see Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[96], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 240–241.
  135. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[97], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 231, 240–243
  136. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[98], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 231–232, 241–243
  137. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[99], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 231, 243–244
  138. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[100], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 244–246
  139. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[101], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 244–246
  140. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[102], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 244–246
  141. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[103], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 244–246
  142. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[104], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 103, 211–212, 222–223, 225, 227, 238
  143. ^ For evidence demonstrating this sound change in the precursor dialects to Fayyumic and Mesokemic, see Blasco Torres, Ana Isabel (2017) Representing Foreign Sounds: Greek Transcriptions of Egyptian Anthroponyms from 800 BC to 800 AD, Leuven, Salamanca, page 614–615.
  144. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 46, 248
  145. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[105], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 98, 211–212, 222–224, 228, 237
  146. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[106], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 211–212, 225–228
  147. ^ Peust, Carsten (1992) “Zur Herkunft des koptischen ⲏ” in Lingua Aegyptia, volume 2, page 124: “Somit ergibt sich für die e-Verschiebung durch Postnasalierung als terminus post quem die Regierungszeit Assurbanipals (669-626), als terminus ante quem die Zeit Herodots (ca. 484-420) sowie der Niederschrift der Jesaja-Stelle (nicht exakt festlegbar).”
  148. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[107], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 238–239: “The nasalization must have affected at least /i/ in the mid of the 1st century [sic, for millennium] BC, but it might also have been present in earlier and/or later periods.”
  149. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[108], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 231–232, 238–239
  150. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[109], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 203, 216
  151. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[110], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 99, 239
  152. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[111], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 222–228
  153. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 39
  154. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[112], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR
  155. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[113], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 134
  156. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[114], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 134
  157. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[115], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 135. For cases deriving from original /p/, also see page 134.
  158. ^ Most later vowels found in Coptic are probably epenthetic, not preservations of earlier Egyptian vowels; see Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[116], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 183.
  159. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[117], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 252
  160. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[118], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 251–252
  161. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[119], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 256, 260
  162. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[120], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 256
  163. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[121], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 256
  164. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[122], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 257
  165. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[123], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 160
  166. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[124], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 160
  167. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[125], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 165–166
  168. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[126], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 166–167
  169. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[127], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 166–167
  170. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[128], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 167
  171. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[129], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 165–168
  172. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[130], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 105
  173. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[131], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 136–137
  174. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[132], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 119: “If Edel’s (1980: 24f.) identification of the Neo-Babylonian cuneiform transcription qa-aḫ-sa-mu-nu with the Egyptian proper name ḫꜣꜥ-s.t-imn is correct, the sound change would already have taken place by the 6th century BC.”
  175. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[133], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 118–119
  176. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[134], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 253–254, 256
  177. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 44
  178. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[135], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 104, 236, 238
  179. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 44–45
  180. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[136], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 121:
    Loan words from Semitic which were adopted with velar stops during the New Kingdom usually appear with palatals in Coptic. Even some more recent loan words are affected […] The transcriptions into Semitic scripts from the 1st millennium BC (as well as earlier) do not show any sign of palatalization […] The first indications of palatalization are found in Greek transcriptions […] Therefore Albright (1946b: 317) is probably right in attributing this palatalization to a time not prior to the 4th century BC.
  181. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[137], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 108–111, 114, 120–121
  182. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[138], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 108, 111–112, 114, 120–121
  183. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[139], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 108, 114, 120–122
  184. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[140], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 99, 110, 161–162
  185. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[141], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 99, 161–162
  186. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[142], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 114
  187. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[143], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 117–118:
    The Greek renderings already agree with the Coptic stage and transcribe ⟨ḫ⟩ sometimes as χ ~ κ, sometimes as σ for [ʃ], but ⟨ẖ⟩ consistently as χ ~ κ. There is not yet a trace of palatalization of ⟨ḫ⟩ in the Aramaic (e.g. mḥjr for the name of the 6th Egyptian month) and cuneiform transcriptions of the mid 1st millennium.
  188. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[144], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 115, 117–118
  189. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 41
  190. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[145], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 117–118, 123:
    The Greek renderings already agree with the Coptic stage and transcribe ⟨ḫ⟩ sometimes as χ ~ κ, sometimes as σ for [ʃ], but ⟨ẖ⟩ consistently as χ ~ κ. There is not yet a trace of palatalization of ⟨ḫ⟩ in the Aramaic (e.g. mḥjr for the name of the 6th Egyptian month) and cuneiform transcriptions of the mid 1st millennium. […] The velar fricative ⟨ḫ⟩ seems to have been palatalised at approximately the same time as the velar stops.
  191. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[146], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 115, 117–118, 123
  192. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 41
  193. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[147], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 115, 117–118
  194. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 41
  195. ^ The changes must precede the merger of /ç/ and /ʃ/, but still be operational following the change of /χ/ to /ç/, and according to Peust they can occasionally be observed in Demotic; see Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[148], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 169: “The palatalization of s can occasionally already be observed in Demotic (cf. Sethe 1899–1902: I, § 272; Osing 1976a: note 511 on p. 586-588).”
  196. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[149], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 168
  197. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[150], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 168
  198. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[151], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 168
  199. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[152], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 169
  200. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[153], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 169
  201. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[154], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 158
  202. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[155], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 158
  203. ^ The change of final schwa to /i/ is already attested in the Greek–Egyptian Demotic glossary found in Papyrus Heid. inv. G. 414 verso, dated to c. 250 BCE; see Quecke, Hans (1997) “Eine griechish-ägyptische Wörterliste vermutlich des 3. Jh. v. Chr. (P. Heid. Inv.-Nr. G 414)” in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, volume 116, pages 67–80.
  204. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[156], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 253–254
  205. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[157], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 151, 258
  206. ^ Already attested in the Archive of Totoes in the name of Zmanres (from wsr-mꜣꜥt-rꜥ).
  207. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[158], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 248–249
  208. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[159], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 84, 158
  209. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[160], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 84, 87, 114
  210. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[161], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 256
  211. ^ Blasco Torres, Ana Isabel (2017) Representing Foreign Sounds: Greek Transcriptions of Egyptian Anthroponyms from 800 BC to 800 AD, Leuven, Salamanca, page 660: “Fayumic lambdacism seems consequently to originate in the first century AD and develop between the second and the fourth centuries AD.”
  212. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[162], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 127, 130–131
  213. ^ Blasco Torres, Ana Isabel (2017) Representing Foreign Sounds: Greek Transcriptions of Egyptian Anthroponyms from 800 BC to 800 AD, Leuven, Salamanca, page 614–615:
    The chronology of the elements reflecting the dialectal diagloss a/o (cf. ḫt) and the lambdacism in anthroponyms in transcription show that there is no solid evidence for the Fayumic dialect before the first century AD. In the Ptolemaic period only the o variants are generally found, as in Sahidic and Bohairic, the two dialects spoken around the Fayum. In the first century AD, Fayumic starts to emerge and seems to develop in the second and third centuries AD. The variants with α for the terms containing the diagloss a/o are consequently improbable for the Ptolemaic period in the Fayum.
  214. ^ For the results, without, however, mentioning this particular sound change, see Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[163], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 211.
  215. ^ Blasco Torres, Ana Isabel (2017) Representing Foreign Sounds: Greek Transcriptions of Egyptian Anthroponyms from 800 BC to 800 AD, Leuven, Salamanca, page 614–615
  216. ^ For the results, without, however, mentioning this particular sound change, see Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[164], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 211.
  217. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[165], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 99: “In Roman Demotic and contemporary hieroglyphic texts, graphical confusion arises between ⟨h⟩ and ⟨ḥ⟩, which indicates that a phonetic merger had taken place by that time.”
  218. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[166], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 99
  219. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 41
  220. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[167], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 87
  221. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[168], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 243
  222. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[169], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 243
  223. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[170], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 91
  224. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[171], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 91
  225. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[172], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 170
  226. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[173], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 249
  227. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[174], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 170–171
  228. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[175], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 170–171
  229. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[176], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 171–172
  230. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[177], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 172
  231. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[178], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 172
  232. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[179], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 251, 255
  233. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[180], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 99, 104:
    In Roman Demotic and contemporary hieroglyphic texts, graphical confusion arises between ⟨h⟩ and ⟨ḥ⟩, which indicates that a phonetic merger had taken place by that time. [… Regarding ⟨ꜥ⟩:] This sound was lost around the turn of the era, contemporaneously with its presumable voiceless counterpart ⟨ḥ⟩.
  234. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[181], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 99, 102–103
  235. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 41, 46
  236. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[182], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 99, 102–103
  237. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[183], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 216–217
  238. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 247
  239. ^ Satzinger, Helmut (2017) “Dialectical Variation of the Egyptian-Coptic Language in the Course of Its Four Millennia of Attested History” in Journal of the Canadian Society for Coptic Studies 9, page 44, 50
  240. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[184], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 115
  241. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 41
  242. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[185], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 115, 118
  243. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 41
  244. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[186], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 114, 120–121
  245. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[187], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 114
  246. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[188], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 190, 193
  247. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[189], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 190, 193
  248. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[190], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 190, 193
  249. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[191], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 223, 228–230
  250. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[192], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 223, 228–230
  251. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[193], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 223, 228–230
  252. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[194], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 91: “[…] approximately around 1300/1400AD […]”
  253. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[195], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 91–95
  254. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[196], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 91–95
  255. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[197], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 91–95
  256. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[198], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 91–95
  257. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[199], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 91
  258. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[200], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 91–95
  259. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[201], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 92–95
  260. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[202], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 92–95
  261. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[203], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 92–95
  262. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[204], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 92–95
  263. ^ Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language[205], Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR, page 92–95