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Middle High German -en, a merger of various terminations in Old High German reflecting different conjugational patterns, namely -an, -ien, -on, -en, and -non, respectively from Proto-Germanic *-aną, *-janą, *-ōną, *-āną, and *-naną.
- The infinitive marker for verbs, which can be appended to a noun or adjective that means X to create a verb that means "to make X" or "to do X"
- A plural marker for regular nouns not ending in an unstressed ־ר (-r), ־ם (-m), ־ן (-n), or a vowel.
- ־ס (-s)