Last modified on 1 October 2014, at 14:30

EnglishEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (usually) IPA(key): /ən/
  • (after /t/, /d/ also) IPA(key): /n̩/
  • In many accents, -en routinely gives up its vowel syllable when given additional suffixes. For example, fatten /ˈfæt.n̩/ + -ing /-ɪŋ/ can be /ˈfæt.n̩.ɪŋ/ or /ˈfæt.nɪŋ/.
    • Even in many accents where this habitual syllable deletion is less usual, the syllable loss may still predominate for certain inflections that have become common words in their own right, such as gardener /ɡɑː(ɹ)d.nə(ɹ)/.
    • Syllable loss may be habitually prevented to avoid merging with more deeply entrenched inflections, such as for keeping the generic inflection lightening /ˈlaɪt.n̩.ɪŋ/ from being pronounced identically to the established term lightning /ˈlaɪt.nɪŋ/ (notice the e is no longer written), even if they both independently derived from a combination of lighten + -ing.
      • But syllable loss may resume with inflections that are not in danger of merging with an established word, such as enlightening, which can be pronounced /ɛnˈlaɪt.n̩.ɪŋ/ or /ɛnˈlaɪt.nɪŋ/ because enlightning is not a common word outside of slang.

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English -n, -en, past participle ending of strong verbs (compare Middle English take(n), took, taken: "take, took, taken"), from Old Norse -inn, past participle ending of strong verbs (compare Old Norse taka, tōk, takinn: "take, took, taken"). From Proto-Norse *-īna- (*-īna-), from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz (cf. Etymology 4, below). Replaced the native past participle ending of strong verbs (from Old English -en) in some words, which had weakened to -e or disappeared (compare Southern Middle English do(n), dud(e), ydo : "do, did, done"), but not in others (compare cume(n), com, ycume: "come, came, come").

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. Denotes the past participle form when attached to a verb.
    As in take, taken; forgive, forgiven; prove, proven
    The -en suffix is also used formally to denote any English past participle, even if it does not use the suffix.
    Such a use may be described formally as cook + -encooked
  2. Denotes a quasi-past participle or participle-like adjective when attached to a noun or verb.
    As in forken ("forked")
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic.

From Middle English -n (in words ending in a vowel: flee: fleen "flea: fleas") and -en. Noun plural marker (predominantly in Southern dialects of Middle English), from Old English Nominative-Accusative plural ending of Weak nouns (n-stem declension); compare nama: naman (masc.) "name: names"; hlǣfdige: hlǣfdigan (fem.) "lady: ladies"; ēare: ēaran (neut.) "ear: ears". Assisted by M.E. dative plural ending -n, -en from late O.E. -un, -on, weakened form of earlier -um. Akin to Old High German n-stem (compare namo: namon "name: names"), Latin n-stem (compare homo: homin-)

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. Can be used to denote the plural form of a small number of English words, the majority of whose etymology goes back to the N-stem (i.e. Weak noun) declension of Germanic languages.
    Examples: aurochs, aurochsen[1]; bee, been; brother, brethren[1]; child, children[1]; cow, kine; knee, kneen; eye, eyen; hose, hosen; house, housen; ox, oxen[1]; shoe, shoon; sister, sistren; tree, treen, swine
Usage notesEdit

No longer productive, outside of occasional humorous use, particularly in computer hacker subculture. Notable examples are boxen, Unixen, VAXen.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

from Middle English -(e)nen, -(e)nien, from Old English -nian, from Proto-Germanic *-inōną. Cognate with Danish -ne, Swedish -na, Icelandic -na.

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. When attached to certain adjectives, it formed a transitive verb whose meaning is, to make (adjective). Usually, the verb is ergative, sometimes not. The same construction could also be done to certain (fewer) nouns, as, strengthen, in which case the verb means roughly, to give (noun) to.
Examples

From adjectives: whiten, quicken
From nouns: strengthen, hasten

Usage notesEdit
  • Currently not very productive; recent coinages such as embiggen are often humorous or nonce words.
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

From Middle English -en, from Old English -en, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz; suffix meaning "made of, consisting of, having the qualities of" applied to nouns to form adjectives. Akin to Dutch -en, German -en, Icelandic -inn, Latin -īnus. See -ine.

Alternative formsEdit

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. Suffix meaning "pertaining to", "having the qualities of", "resembling", "like".
    elfin, wolven, peachen
  2. When attached to certain nouns that are the names of a material, it forms an adjective whose meaning is, made of (noun). This is a formative pattern with many obsolescent remnants. Changes in the form of the root noun, and the dropping of the "e" in the suffix occur. There are also orphan formations whose root has been lost to the current language.
    Current examples: wood, wooden; gold, golden; brass, brazen
    Obsolete examples: bronze, bronzen; silver, silvern
    Orphan examples: linen (flax was called lin).
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 5Edit

From Middle English, from Old English -en, from the neuter form of -en4.

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. Used to form the diminutives of certain nouns
    chicken
    maiden
    kitten

See alsoEdit

Etymology 6Edit

From Middle English -en, a blending of Old English infintives -an and -n, from Proto-Germanic *-aną.

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. (obsolete) Used to form the infinitive of verbs.
  2. (obsolete) Used to form the third person plural present tense of verbs.
Usage notesEdit
  • Began to fade towards the 15th Century, used primarily in Early Modern English to show archaic or dialectal speech.
  • The weakening and loss of the marker caused some verbs to blend with verbs marked by Etymology 3; for example Middle English 'learen' (to teach) blended with 'learnen' (to learn), resulting in learn having a (dialectal) double meaning.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language by David Crystal (1995, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521401798), page 200

DanishEdit

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. used to make the singular definite form of nouns in the common gender
  2. appended to a verb to make a noun that describes an action or a process c
  3. -ene (alkene) n, c

Derived termsEdit


DutchEdit

Etymology 1Edit

A merger of various infinitive suffixes:

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. Ending of the infinitive form of verbs.
  2. (by extension) An ending added other words to form a verb, in its infinitive form. The stem of the word itself does not change.
ConjugationEdit

For verb stems ending in a voiced consonant:

For verb stems ending in a voiceless consonant:

For strong verbs (1=present stem, 2=past stem, 3=past participle stem):

Etymology 2Edit

From the Old Dutch strong past participle ending -an, from Proto-Germanic *-anaz.

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. The ending of the past participle of strong verbs. This can also function as an adjective.
DeclensionEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Middle Dutch -ijn, -in, -en, from Old Dutch *-īn, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. Forms adjectives that indicate the material from which something is made.
DeclensionEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

From various case forms of the Germanic weak nominal inflection.

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. The ending of the plural form of many nouns.
  2. Taken by adjectives used as nouns, to form the plural form of such nouns.
    groot — de groten (the great ones)
  3. (archaic, not productive) The ending of a number of weak case endings of the adjective or the article.
    een — ten enen male
  4. (archaic, not productive) The ending of the genitive case of certain nouns.
    de hertog — des hertogen, a genitive preserved in 's-Hertogenbosch

Etymology 5Edit

From various first- and third-person plural forms of Germanic verbs.

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. The ending of the plural forms of verbs, in both present and past tense.

Etymology 6Edit

From Old Dutch -ana, from Proto-Germanic *-anē.

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. A suffix present on certain adverbs.
    voor — van voren (from the front)

FinnishEdit

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. Suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.
  2. Suffix for the genitive plural. Usually preceded by the plural marker -i- or -j-, but may also have a consonant separator d after the plural marker if the words would otherwise have 3 consecutive vowels.
  3. (personal) Forms the impersonal potential present forms of verbs, appended to the infinitive, followed by the potential mood marker -ne-.
    No changes in infinitives of verbs that end in one a/ä, except for consonant gradation in verbs ending with -da/-dä and the doubled t in verbs ending with a vowel and -ta/-tä. This -en is preceded by the mood marker -ne-.
    juosta + -ne- + -enjuostaneen
    nähdä + -ne- + -ennähtäneen
    haluta + -ne- + -enhaluttaneen
    In verbs ending in -oa/-öä or -ua/-yä, the beginning stem is followed by -tta-/-ttä, the mood marker -ne- and then by this — consonant gradation occurs.
    sanoa, stem sano- + -tta- + -ne- + -ensanottaneen
    kertoa, stem ker- + -to- → -ro- + -tta + -enkerrottaneen
    huolestua, stem huolestu- + -tta- + -ne- + -enhuolestuttaneen
    saapua, stem saa- + -pu- → -vu- + -tta- + -ne- + -ensaavuttaneen
    säilöä, stem säilö- + -ttä- + -ne- + -ensäilöttäneen
    säilyä, stem säily- + -ttä- + -ne- + -ensäilyttäneen
    häip, stem häi- + -py- → -vy- + -ttä- + -ne- + -enhäivyttäneen
    In verbs ending in -aa/-ää or -ea/-eä, the beginning stem is followed by -etta-, the mood marker -ne- and then by this — consonant gradation occurs.
    paistaa, stem paist- + -etta- + -ne- + -enpaistettaneen
    laskea, stem lask- + -etta- + -ne- + -enlaskettaneen
    iskeä, stem isk- + -että- + -ne- + -eniskettäneen
    laittaa, stem lait- (another t disappears) + -etta- + -ne- + -enlaitettaneen
    vaihtaa, stem vaih- + -t- → -d- + -etta- + -en-vaihdettaneen
  4. (possessive) A variant for the third-person possessive suffixes -nsa and -nsä, see the usage notes below.

Usage notesEdit

  • (third-person possessive suffix variant) When the third-person possessive suffix -nsa/-nsä is appended to nouns that are in singular and plural allative and translative and plural comitative, the S and A/Ä are very often omitted from the suffix and the last E of the case suffix preceding the remaining N is doubled — resulting in this -en. In standard Finnish, both the "full" form and the shortened form are acceptable. This same omission takes very often place also in the long first infinitives, used in a shortened sentence expressing "(in order) to do" (see the meanings of -nsa and -nsä):
Singular
(allat.) kirjallensa → kirjalleen
(trans.) kirjaksensa → kirjakseen
Plural
(allat.) kirjoillensa → kirjoilleen
(trans.) kirjoiksensa → kirjoikseen
(comit.) kirjoinensa → kirjoineen

GermanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Middle High German -en, a merger of various terminations in Old High German reflecting different conjugational patterns, namely -an, -ien, -on, -en, and -non, respectively from Proto-Germanic *-aną, *-janą, *-ōną, *-āną, and *-naną.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. A suffix of verbs in their infinitive form.
  2. A suffix which is appended to some nouns to make them plural.
  3. A suffix (in fact, the most common declensional ending) which is appended to many nouns and adjectives, for multiple grammatical cases, both singular and plural; a declensional suffix for present participles (e.g. Auszubildender m (male) "apprentice", Auszubildende f, (female) "apprentice" or past participles (e.g. Verbündeter m, (male) "ally", Verbündete f, (female) "ally").
  4. A suffix which is used to create adjectives that refer to materials (e.g. golden, gülden "gold, golden", made of Gold.
  5. (chemistry) -ene (alkene suffix)

Derived termsEdit


HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. Added to an adjective or numeral to create an adverb.
    szép (beautiful) → szépen (beautifully)
    hét (seven) → Heten mentünk moziba. - Seven of us went to the cinema.
    kettő (two) → Ketten vannak a szobában. - There are two people in the room.
  2. on (superessive case ending)
    szék (chair) → széken (on the chair)
  3. Added to a stem - often an onomatopoeias - to form a verb expressing an instantaneous action.
    reccsen (to crackle, to make one cracking sound)
    retten (to recoil, to get afraid instantly)

Usage notesEdit

  • (adverbial suffix): See under -n
  • (superessive case): See under -n
  • (verb suffix): See under -an

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit


JapaneseEdit

RomanizationEdit

-en

  1. rōmaji reading of えん

Middle DutchEdit

Etymology 1Edit

A merger of various infinitive suffixes:

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. The ending of the infinitive form of verbs, used as a suffix to form new verbs as well.

Etymology 2Edit

From the Old Dutch strong past participle ending -an, from Proto-Germanic *-anaz.

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. The ending of the past participle of strong verbs.

Etymology 3Edit

From various first- and third-person plural forms of Germanic verbs.

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. The ending of the first- and third-person plural forms of verbs.

Etymology 4Edit

From Old Dutch *-īn, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. Alternative form of -in.

Old EnglishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Proto-Germanic *-īną

SuffixEdit

-en n

  1. (causes i-mutation) used to create diminutive neuter nouns
    mæġden (little girl), from mæġþ (girl, woman)
    cycen, cicen (chick), from cocc (cock, fowl)
DeclensionEdit
Neuter

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic *-njō, *-injō, *-unjō

Alternative formsEdit

SuffixEdit

-en f

  1. (often causes i-mutation) used to create feminine nouns from other nouns
    gyden (goddess), from god ((male) god) (with i-muation)
    þēowen (female servant), from þēow ((male) servant) (without i-mutation)
DeclensionEdit
Feminine

Etymology 3Edit

Proto-Germanic *-īnaz

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. (causes i-mutation) adjectival suffix meaning "material made of, consisting of"
    gylden (golden), from gold "gold"
    ǣtren (venomous, poisonous), from ātor (poison)

Etymology 4Edit

Proto-Germanic *-anaz

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. (verbal suffix) past participle ending of strong verbs
    ġecumen (come)
    ġecorfen (carved)

Etymology 5Edit

Proto-Germanic *-an-

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. (adjective suffix) meaning belonging to or characterized by
    tunglen (of the stars, sidereal, starry), from tungol (star)
    fæderen (paternal, of a father), from fæder (fathe)
    hunden (canine), from hund (dog, hound)

SpanishEdit

EtymologyEdit

Latin -ent and -unt

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person plural present indicative of -er and -ir verbs.
  2. Suffix indicating the third-person plural present subjunctive of -ar verbs.
  3. Suffix indicating the third-person plural imperative of -ar verbs

See alsoEdit


SwedishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse suffixes -inn and -in.

SuffixEdit

-en

  1. Suffix for definite form singular of many common gender nouns, in particular those which end in a consonant or a stressed -i; see also -n.
  2. Suffix for definite form plural of neuter nouns ending with consonant.
  3. Suffix for the past participle of verbs belonging to the fourth (strong) declension, e.g. stjälastulen.
  4. Suffix which converts a few adjectives into adverbs
    möjlig (possible) → möjligen (possibly)

WelshEdit

EtymologyEdit

Alteration of un (one).

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-en f (masculine -yn)

  1. Used to form feminine singulative forms of certain words; for the sake of example: cylioncylionen.