dzelt

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Baltic *gel-, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷel- (to stab, to pierce; stabbing pain), apparently a variant of *kel- (to pierce, to stab) and related to *kel- (to hit, to chop) (whence Latvian kalt (to forge, to chisel)) and *(s)kel- (to cut) (whence Latvian šķelt (to split)). Cognates include Lithuanian gélti, Old Church Slavonic жєла (žela), жєля (žela, želja, grief, sorrow, wailing), Russian жаль (žal’, a pity; (dial.) compassion, grief), жало (žálo, sting, stinger) (< Proto-Slavic *žędlo < *gendlo < *geldlo), dialectal жилать (žilát’, to bite (especially insects)), Bulgarian жал (žal, grief, sorrow), жило (žilo, sting, stinger), Czech žal (grief, sorrow), Old High German quāla (torment, suffering), German Qual, Ancient Greek βελόνη (belónē, needle) (< *gʷel-), Hittite gulš- (to incise, to carve).[1]

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

dzelt tr. or intr., 1st conj., pres. dzeļu, dzel, dzeļ, past dzēlu

  1. (usually 3rd person, of insects) to sting (to stab with a stinger)
    bites, lapsenes, odi dzeļ — bees, wasps, mosquitoes sting
    lapsene dzeļ pirkstā — the wasp stings the finger (lit. in the finger)
    skorpioni nekož, bet dzeļ ar dzeloni, kas atrodas ķermeņa astes galā — scorpions don't bite, they sting with a stinger placed at the end of their body
    tā kā viņš nebaidījās no bitēm, tad bites viņu arī nedzēla — since he wasn't afraid of bees, the bees also didn't sting him
  2. (usually 3rd person, of sharp, pointed objects) to sting (to cause pain, to hurt, to harm)
    dzeļ vācu zirgiem sānos pieši — the side spurs stung the German horses
    Maldavs tikai pūta un elsa, it kā ādas pātagas dzeltu viņa paša muguru — Maldvas only panted and gasped, as if the leather whip had stung his own back
    var ienaidnieka lodes nežēlīgi dzelt — enemy bullets can sting so cruelly
  3. (usually 3rd person, of plants) to sting (to cause pain, skin redness, or to hurt with a stinger or some needle-like growth)
    nātres dzeļ rokās — nettles sting the hand (lit. in the hand, arm)
    nedzel mani tu, nātrītedon't sting me, little nettles
    lokanie zari sitās sejā, un skuju adatas sāpīgi dzēla vaigos — flexible branches hit the face, and pine needles painfully stung the cheeks (lit. in the cheeks)
    kā nātres vārdi dzeļ — like nettles, words (can) sting
  4. (usually 3rd person, of wind, frost, heat, etc.) to sting (to cause a sore, burning sensation)
    asāk sejās dzeļ vējš — the wind is stinging more sharply in the face
    Ilmeņa vēji dzeļ seju — the wind of Ilmenis stings the face
    kodīgs sals dzēla sejā un locekļos — the corrosive frost stung in the face and limbs
    aukstums dzeļ vaigus un zodu — the cold stings the cheeks and chin
    Staļingrada! tava uguns dvaša tūkstoš jūdzēm tālu sejā dzeļ — Stalingrad! your fiery breath stings in the face (even) a thousand miles away
  5. (usually 3rd person, of lights, colors) to sting (to cause a feeling of irritation or of agitation)
    sarkanas lentītes vien spīd; tā dzeļ, tā dzeļ acīs — the little red ribbons just shine; they sting, they sting in the eyes
    brūna krāsa ir silta, ne tā kā zilā; dzeļ un stindzina ar ledus vēsumu — the brown color is cold, not like the green (color); it stings and numbs with icy coolness
  6. (all persons) to sting (to cause unpleasant feelings with words or behavior, to offend)
    “nemēro visus pie sevis!” Mirdzai gribējās dzelt šim lielīgajam puisim — “don't measure everyone by yourself (= by your standards)!” Mirdzai wanted to sting this swaggering young man
    īsais teiciens recenzijā dzēla vairāk, nekā to būtu darījis plašs apcerējums — a short sentence in the review stung more than an extensive treatise would
    viņas asā, žultainā mēle spēja dzelt daudz sāpīgāk nekā rīkstes cirtiens — her sharp, bitter tonge was able to sting much more painfully than
    veltīgas skumjas un veltīgas sāpes vairs neiesprēj dzelt — futile sadness and futile pain can no longer sting
    mātes ļaunums un naids dzeļ daudz sāpīgāk par svešnieka nievām — the mother's evil and hatred stings much more painfully than the scorn of strangers
  7. (of looks, eyes) to sting (to express a negative attitude, to offend, to upset)
    viņa runāja asi, un viņas acis dzēla — she spoke sharply, and her eyes were stinging
    niknām acīm viņa dzēla pie galda sēdošos valdes vīrus — with wild, angry eyes she stung the men of the Board, sitting at the table

ConjugationEdit

SynonymsEdit

  • (of plants): durties

Derived termsEdit

prefixed verbs:
  • aizdzelt
  • apdzelt
  • atdzelt
  • iedzelt
  • nodzelt
  • padzelt
  • sadzelt
other derived terms:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ “dzelt” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.
Last modified on 10 January 2014, at 05:55