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LatvianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

A borrowing from Middle Low German könink (king), or from Middle Dutch coninc (ruler) (cf. German König, Dutch koning, English king), parallel forms to Middle Low German kunig (whence Latvian kungs (lord, sir, Mr.), q.v.). The word was borrowed during the 17th century, in different forms, depending on dialect: konings, koniņš > archaic ķoniņš; kēnings > ķēniņš. The form ķēniņš stabilized in the 18th century. Nowadays, except for a few expressions, ķēniņš has largely been replaced by its synonym karalis (q.v.).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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NounEdit

ķēniņš m (1st declension, feminine form: ķēniņiene)

  1. (dated) king (the monarch of a kingdom)
    kungs un kēniņšlord and king (expression used to address a king)
    būt kungam un kēniņamto be lord and king (to be the absolute chief)
    zvēru kēniņšthe king of beasts (i.e., the lion)
    kēniņa pilsthe king's castle, the royal castle
    ik vakarus ministrs ziņoja, ka viss kārtībā, un neviena ļauna skaņa neaizskāra kēniņa ausisevery evening the minister reported that everything (was) fine, and no bad sounds reached the king's ears
    pašreizīgas saimnieks varēja būt pilnīgs kungs un kēniņš savā namā, savā zemēthe current owner could be fully lord and king in his own house, in his own land

DeclensionEdit

Usage notesEdit

Except for a few expressions, ķēniņš has mostly been replaced by its synonym karalis in current usage.

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “ķēniņš”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7