μῆλον

Ancient GreekEdit

PronunciationEdit

 

Etymology 1Edit

Uncertain. Multiple theories have been put forth.

Beekes declares it to be a Pre-Greek Mediterranean substrate borrowing, comparing it with 𒈠𒀀𒄴𒆷𒀸 (māḫlaš, grapevine).[1]

Kroonen (2016) reconstructs a Proto-Indo-European byform *smh₂l-, from which he also derives Hittite 𒊭𒈠𒇻 (šamalu-), 𒊭𒄠𒇻 (šamlu-) "apple". He also connects this IE form with Proto-Kartvelian *msxal- (pear) and proposes that the Indo-European words may have come from a metathesis of that Kartvelian word. [2]

Fenwick (2016) also argues for an ultimate Indo-European origin, though with differing details, and views the Kartvelian term rather as an IE loan. She reconstructs PIE *méh₂lo- (cultivated tree, cultivated vine), with a variant *móh₂lo- (id.)—cp. Hittite 𒈠𒀀𒄴𒆷𒀸 (māḫlaš, grapevine), Lydian μῶλαξ "type of wine", and Classical Armenian մոլ (mol, sucker, runner, stolon)—and considers them as thematised from an acrostatic root noun in *móh₂l- (type of culturally important plant), with a range of other derived forms. She further treats *móh₂l- itself as a possible archaic *-l- deverbal from *meh₂- (to grow, increase, mature, be fruitful), comparing also *webʰl- (weevil, beetle, worm) alongside *webʰ- (to weave)).[3]

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

μῆλον (mêlonn (genitive μήλου); second declension

  1. apple
  2. any fruit from a tree
  3. (figuratively, in the plural) a woman's breast
  4. (in the plural) cheeks
DeclensionEdit
Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit
  • Greek: μήλο (mílo)
  • Tsakonian: μάλι
  • Proto-Albanian: *mālā (via Doric μᾶλα (mâla))
  • Latin: mālum, mēlum, mēlo

Etymology 2Edit

Uncertain, perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *(s)meh₁l- (small animal). Compare Old Irish mil (small animal), Dutch maal (young cow), Old Church Slavonic малъ (malŭ), and Old English smæl (English small).

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

μῆλον (mêlonn (genitive μήλου); second declension

  1. sheep
  2. goat
  3. beast
DeclensionEdit
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “μῆλον”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 943-944
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2016), “On the origin of Greek μῆλον, Latin mālum, Albanian mollë and Hittite šam(a)lu- ‘apple’”, in The Journal of Indo-European Studies[1], volume 44, pages 85-91
  3. ^ Fenwick, Rhona S. H. (2016), “Descendants and ancestry of a Proto-Indo-European phytonym *meh₂l-”, in The Journal of Indo-European Studies, volume 44, pages 441-456

Further readingEdit