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See also: Χθών


Ancient GreekEdit


Full transference to n-stem (cf. εἷς (heîs), χῐών (khiṓn)), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰéǵʰōm, with the Proto-Indo-European cluster *dʰǵʰ- metathesizing into Proto-Greek *kʰtʰ-, since Greek stop clusters must always end in a dental. Cognates include Sanskrit क्ष (kṣa) and Latin humus.


  • (5th BCE Attic) IPA(key): /kʰtʰɔ̌ːn/
  • (1st CE Egyptian) IPA(key): /kʰtʰon/
  • (4th CE Koine) IPA(key): /xθon/
  • (10th CE Byzantine) IPA(key): /xθon/
  • (15th CE Constantinopolitan) IPA(key): /xθon/
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    χθών (khthṓnf (genitive χθονός); third declension

    1. ground, soil, surface of the earth
    2. earth, world
    3. land, country


    Derived termsEdit

    Related termsEdit

    Further readingEdit

    • χθών in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
    • χθών in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
    • χθών in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
    • χθών in Bailly, Anatole (1935) Le Grand Bailly: Dictionnaire grec-français, Paris: Hachette
    • χθών in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
    • χθών in Slater, William J. (1969) Lexicon to Pindar, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
    • Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language[1], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.