This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Etymology edit

From *dʰeǵʰ- +‎ *-ōm.

However, Kloekhorst argues that the Sanskrit and Anatolian evidence point towards a reconstruction of the root *dʰeǵ- as opposed to *dʰeǵʰ- on the basis that:

  1. In the Sanskrit oblique stem jm-, -j- must reflect *ǵ-, and cannot reflect *ǵʰ-, which would regularly give -h- in all positions.
  2. The long vowel in the Hittite nom. sg. [tēkan] suggests a "voiced unaspirated" (pre-glottalised) velar. See Kloekhorst (2012).
  3. The *ǵʰ- reconstructable from Latin, Germanic and Greek can be explained in the glottalic theory as a simplification of the cluster *dʰǵ /dˀɡ/ to *dʰǵʰ /dɡ/. The opposite development is much less likely.

It should be noted, however, that the glottalic theory is not generally accepted.

A phonetically difficult but possible connection is with *(s)teǵ- (to cover), with devoicing of *dʰ to *t via Siebs' law.[1]

Noun edit

*dʰéǵʰōm f[2]

  1. earth
  2. human

Inflection edit

According to Ringe:

Athematic, amphikinetic
nominative *dʰéǵʰōm
genitive *ǵʰmés
singular dual plural
nominative *dʰéǵʰōm
vocative *dʰéǵʰom
accusative *dʰéǵʰōm
genitive *ǵʰmés
ablative *ǵʰmés
dative *ǵʰméy
locative *ǵʰém, *ǵʰémi
instrumental *ǵʰméh₁


  • Nom. from **dʰéǵʰoms
  • Acc. from **dʰéǵʰomm̥

The Hittite evidence suggests a regular hysterokinetic inflection; Kloekhorst reconstructs the original paradigm as:

Nom. sg. *dʰéǵ-m-
Acc. sg. *dʰǵ-ém-m
Gen. sg. *dʰǵ-m-és

Synonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

References edit

  1. ^ Kortlandt, Frederik (2014) “Proto-Indo-European “thorn”-clusters”, in Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics[1], volume 127, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, →JSTOR
  2. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[2], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  3. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, § 45.1
  4. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 156

Further reading edit

  • Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 859f
  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) “c‘amak‘”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden and Boston: Brill, pages 621–623