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गन्धर्व

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SanskritEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-Iranian *g(ʰ)andʰarwás ~ *g(ʰ)andʰarbʰás, ultimately likely from a BMAC substrate. Compare Young Avestan 𐬔𐬀𐬧𐬛𐬆𐬭𐬆𐬡𐬀 (gaṇdərəβa), 𐬔𐬀𐬧𐬛𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬡𐬀 (gaṇdarəβa).

PronunciationEdit

  • (Vedic) IPA(key): /ɡɐn̪.d̪ʱɐɽ.ʋɐ́/
  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ɡɐn̪ˈd̪ʱɐɽ.ʋɐ/
  • NounEdit

    गन्धर्व (gandharvám

    1. (Hinduism, Buddhism) a gandharva (one of a class of male heavenly beings, famed singers and guardians of soma)
      • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 9.86.36
        सप्त स्वसारो अभि मातरः शिशुं नवं जज्ञानं जेन्यं विपश्चितम् ।
        अपां गन्धर्वं दिव्यं नृचक्षसं सोमं विश्वस्य भुवनस्य राजसे ॥
        sapta svasāro abhi mātaraḥ śiśuṃ navaṃ jajñānaṃ jenyaṃ vipaścitam .
        apāṃ gandharvaṃ divyaṃ nṛcakṣasaṃ somaṃ viśvasya bhuvanasya rājase .
        The Sisters Seven, the Mothers, stand around the Babe, the noble, new-born Infant, skilled in holy song,
        Gandharva of the floods, divine, beholding men, Soma, that he may reign as King of all the world.
    2. (figuratively) a skilled singer, bard
      • c. 700 CE – 900 CE, Bhāgavata Purāṇa 1.11.20
        नटनर्तकगन्धर्वाः सूत मागध वन्दिनः ।
        गायन्ति चोत्तमश्लोक चरितानि अद्‍भुतानि च ॥
        naṭanartakagandharvāḥ sūta māgadha vandinaḥ .
        gāyanti cottamaśloka caritāni ad‍bhutāni ca .
    3. a sage, religious man
    4. horse
      Synonym: अश्व (aśva)
    5. A male given name

    DeclensionEdit

    Masculine a-stem declension of गन्धर्व (gandharvá)
    Singular Dual Plural
    Nominative गन्धर्वः
    gandharváḥ
    गन्धर्वौ
    gandharvaú
    गन्धर्वाः / गन्धर्वासः¹
    gandharvā́ḥ / gandharvā́saḥ¹
    Vocative गन्धर्व
    gándharva
    गन्धर्वौ
    gándharvau
    गन्धर्वाः / गन्धर्वासः¹
    gándharvāḥ / gándharvāsaḥ¹
    Accusative गन्धर्वम्
    gandharvám
    गन्धर्वौ
    gandharvaú
    गन्धर्वान्
    gandharvā́n
    Instrumental गन्धर्वेण
    gandharvéṇa
    गन्धर्वाभ्याम्
    gandharvā́bhyām
    गन्धर्वैः / गन्धर्वेभिः¹
    gandharvaíḥ / gandharvébhiḥ¹
    Dative गन्धर्वाय
    gandharvā́ya
    गन्धर्वाभ्याम्
    gandharvā́bhyām
    गन्धर्वेभ्यः
    gandharvébhyaḥ
    Ablative गन्धर्वात्
    gandharvā́t
    गन्धर्वाभ्याम्
    gandharvā́bhyām
    गन्धर्वेभ्यः
    gandharvébhyaḥ
    Genitive गन्धर्वस्य
    gandharvásya
    गन्धर्वयोः
    gandharváyoḥ
    गन्धर्वाणाम्
    gandharvā́ṇām
    Locative गन्धर्वे
    gandharvé
    गन्धर्वयोः
    gandharváyoḥ
    गन्धर्वेषु
    gandharvéṣu
    Notes
    • ¹Vedic

    ReferencesEdit

    • Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1898) A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 346