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U+3139, ㄹ

Hangul Compatibility Jamo
U+1105, ᄅ

Hangul Jamo
U+11AF, ᆯ

Hangul Jamo
U+3203, ㈃

Enclosed CJK Letters and Months
U+3263, ㉣

Enclosed CJK Letters and Months
U+FFA9, ᄅ

Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms


Stroke order
Korean Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ko

Etymology 1Edit

English Wikipedia has an article on:

The traditional account* holds that the form of ㄹ l is the outline of the tongue, 舌 [] 之形, but does not specify what this means. Gari Ledyard proposes that it was a graphic simplification of Phagspa l, ultimately from Tibetanl, though the iconic considerations of the traditional account may have determined the form that this simplification took.

* Hunmin Jeongeum Haerye “Explanations and Examples of the Proper Sounds for the Instruction of the People” (1446), defining and explaining the script now known as 한글 (han-geul, Great script, Korean script) in South Korea and 조선글 (joseon-geul, Korean script) in North Korea.


  • IPA(key): /l/
  • Actual realisation:
    (word-initially or between vowels) IPA(key): [ɾ]
    (after nasals other than /n/, or after stops) IPA(key): [n]
    (elsewhere) IPA(key): [ɭ]



  1. 리을 (rieul, “rieul”), a letter of the Korean writing system, hangeul; the alveolar flap or approximant ([ɾ], [l])
Usage notesEdit

In the North Korean order, it is the fourth jamo. In the South Korean order, it is the sixth.

See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle Korean (-lq), from Old Korean (*-l). The Old Korean form (up to the thirteenth century) was primarily an irrealis verbal nominalizer, rather than an adnominal suffix as it is now. In fifteenth-century Middle Korean both the nominalizing and adnominal functions were in use, but the nominalizing function was already quite archaic. Since the sixteenth century, the suffix has only had an adnominal meaning.



—ㄹ (-l)

  1. a verbal irrealis adnominal suffix, generally equivalent to English "that will" or "who will" but not always having a future tense meaning
    친구에게 선물
    chin-guege jul seonmul
    the gift that (I) will give to (my) friend
    biga ol ttae
    when it rains (literally: times when it rains)
Usage notesEdit

After consonants, the allomorph - (eul, “-eul”) is used.

- (-l) is appended to the sequential form. Similar to a future participle, the resulting determiner indicates that the referent of the following substantive will perform the action described by the verb to which - (-l) is attached:

  • 가다 (gada, “to go”): (gani, “ga-”) + (l): (gal, “who will go; that sb will go to/at/by...”)
  • 묻다 (mutda, “to inquire”): 물으 (mureuni, “mureu-”) + (l): 물을 (mureul, “who will inquire; that sb will inquire”)
  • 날다 (nalda, “to fly”): 니/ (nani/nalmyeon, “na-/nal-”) + (l): (nal, “that will fly”)

The suffix -ㄹ (-l) is frequently used along with several dependent nouns, such as (geot, “thing”) and (ttae, “time”), for grammatical purposes. As an irrealis mood marker rather than a tense marker, it can either denote the future tense, or nothing:

  • (future, intention) 친구이번 기회고향 라고 했다. (Geu chin-guneun ibeon gihoee gohyangjibeul chajeul geosirago haetda., “He said he will visit his hometown by this chance.”)
  • (future, guess) 차가 같다. (Muri chagaul geot gatda., “I guess the water is cold.”)
    cf. 물이 차가 것 같다. (Muri chagaun geot gatda., “The water seems cold.”) / 물이 차가 같다. (Muri chagawosseul geot gatda., “I guess the water was cold.”)
    물이 차가 것 같다. (Muri chagaul geot gatatda., “I guessed the water was cold.”) / 물이 차가 것 같다. (Muri chagawosseul geot gatatda., “I guessed the water had been cold.”)
  • (no tense) 그가 하 믿 만한 것이 있 가 없다. (Geuga haneun mal jung-e mideul manhan geosi isseul riga eopda., “Among the words he says, what is worth believing cannot ever exist.”)
  • (no tense) 목발이나 다리다쳐 사용한다. (Mokbareun barina darireul dachyeo jal georeul su eopseul ttae sayonghanda., “We use crutches when we don't walk well due to foot or leg injuries.”)

Etymology 3Edit



  1. Alternative form of (reul) used colloquially after pronouns and certain nouns ending in vowels