Archaic noun ending used to create possessive forms, equivalent to English 's or of. For instance, Bolków literally means "Bolko's" or "of Bolko". Cognate with Russian -ов (-ov), Ukrainian -ів (-iv), Belarusian -аў (-aŭ) (unstressed)/-оў (-oŭ) (stressed). In modern Polish, the same ending is used for genitive plurals of masculine nouns.
- used to create village and town names, especially in south Poland
- Examples include Kraków, Chorzów, Gorzów Wielkopolski. In many cases the root is archaic or a relict from a protolanguage, so unambiguous etymological reconstruction is impossible.