See also: OF, Of, of-, Of-, OF., óf, òf, and ôf

English

edit

Etymology 1

edit

    From Middle English of, from Old English of (from, out of, off), an unstressed form of æf, from Proto-West Germanic *ab, from Proto-Germanic *ab (away; away from). Doublet of off, which is the stressed descendant of the same Old English word. More at off.

    Alternative forms

    edit

    Pronunciation

    edit

    Preposition

    edit
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    of

    1. Expressing distance or motion.
      1. (now obsolete or dialectal) From (of distance, direction), "off". [from 9th c.]
        • 1485, Sir Thomas Malory, chapter X, in Le Morte Darthur, book XIII:
          Sir said Galahad by this shelde ben many merueils fallen / Sir sayd the knyght hit befelle after the passion of our lord Ihesu Crist xxxij yere that Ioseph of Armathye the gentyl knyghte / the whiche took doune oure lord of the hooly Crosse att that tyme he departed from Iherusalem with a grete party of his kynred with hym
          Sir, said Galahad, by this shield many marvels have fallen / Sir, said the knight, it befell after the passion of our lord Jesus Christ, year 32, when Joseph of Arimathea, the gentile knight, / took down our lord of the holy Cross. At that time, he departed from Jerusalem with a great party of his kindred with him
        • 1621, Democritus Junior [pseudonym; Robert Burton], The Anatomy of Melancholy, [], Oxford, Oxfordshire: Printed by John Lichfield and Iames Short, for Henry Cripps, →OCLC, partition 2, section 3, member 5, subsection 2:
          Against headache, vertigo, vapours which ascend forth of the stomach to molest the head, read Hercules de Saxonia and others.
        • 1851 November 14, Herman Melville, chapter XXXII, in Moby-Dick; or, The Whale, 1st American edition, New York, N.Y.: Harper & Brothers; London: Richard Bentley, →OCLC, page 153:
          He is never chased; he would run away with rope-walks of line.
      2. (obsolete except in phrases) Since, from (a given time, earlier state etc.). [from 9th c.]
      3. From, away from (a position, number, distance etc.). [from 10th c.]
        There are no shops within twenty miles of the cottage.
        • 1932 September 30, Time:
          Though Washington does not officially recognize Moscow, the Hoover Administration permits a Soviet Russian Information Bureau to flourish in a modest red brick house on Massachusetts Avenue, within a mile of the White House.
        • 2010 November 7, The Guardian:
          There are now upwards of 1.4 million 99ers in America facing a life with no benefits and few prospects for finding a job in a market in which companies are still not hiring.
    2. Expressing separation.
      1. Indicating removal, absence or separation, with the action indicated by a transitive verb and the quality or substance by a grammatical object. [from 10th c.]
        Finally she was relieved of the burden of caring for her sick husband.
        • 1485, Sir Thomas Malory, “xviij”, in Le Morte Darthur, book XIII:
          And ther with on his handes and on his knees he wente soo nyghe that he touched the holy vessel / and kyste hit / and anone he was hole / and thenne he sayd lord god I thanke the / for I am helyd of this sekenesse
          And there, with his hands and on his knees, he got so close that he touched the holy vessel / and kissed it / and he was whole straight away / and then he said: lord God, I thank thee / for I am healed of this sickness
        • 1603, Michel de Montaigne, chapter I, in John Florio, transl., The Essayes [], book II, London: [] Val[entine] Simmes for Edward Blount [], →OCLC:
          Antigonus [took] upon him to favour a souldier of his by reason of his vertue and valour, to have great care of him, and see whether they could recover him of a lingering and inward disease which had long tormented him []
        • 1816 February 20, Jane Austen, Letter:
          I am almost entirely cured of my rheumatism—just a little pain in my knee now and then, to make me remember what it was, and keep on flannel.
        • 1951 September 3, Time:
          In Houston, ten minutes after the Lindquist Finance Corp. was robbed of $447, Office Manager Howard Willson got a phone call from the thief who complained: "You didn't have enough money over there."
      2. Indicating removal, absence or separation, with resulting state indicated by an adjective. [from 10th c.]
        He seemed devoid of human feelings.
        • 1731 August 28, Jonathan Swift, Letter:
          But schemes are perfectly accidental: some will appear barren of hints and matter, but prove to be fruitful []
        • 2010 October 31, Stuart James, The Guardian:
          Yet for long spells Villa looked laboured and devoid of ideas.
      3. (obsolete) Indicating removal, absence or separation, construed with an intransitive verb. [14th–19th c.]
        • 1822, Jacob Bailey Moore, New Hampshire, volume 1, page 5:
          He was kindly treated by the people at Saco, and recovered of his wounds.
    3. Expressing origin.
      1. Indicating an ancestral source or origin of descent. [from 9th c.]
        The word is believed to be of Japanese origin.
        • 1526, [William Tyndale, transl.], The Newe Testamẽt [] (Tyndale Bible), [Worms, Germany: Peter Schöffer], →OCLC, Acts:
          They wondred all, and marveylled sayinge amonge themselves: Loke, are not all these which speake off galile? And howe heare we every man his awne tongue wherein we were boren?
        • 1954, The Rotarian, volume 85:6:
          My father was born of a family of weavers in Manchester, England.
        • 2010, “The Cost of Repair”, in The Economist:
          Nothing may come of these ideas, yet their potential should not be dismissed.
      2. Introducing an epithet that indicates a birthplace, residence, dominion, or other place associated with the individual.
        Jesus of Nazareth (after hometown)
        Anselm of Canterbury (after diocese)
        Anselm of Aosta (after birthplace)
        Anselm of Bec (after monastery)
        Pedro II of Brazil (after dominion)
        Mrs Miggins of Gasworks Road, Mudchester (after place of residence)
      3. Indicating a (non-physical) source of action or emotion; introducing a cause, instigation; from, out of, as an expression of. [from 9th c.]
        The invention was born of necessity.
        • 1485, Sir Thomas Malory, chapter XIX, in Le Morte Darthur, book X:
          Faire knyght said Palomydes me semeth we haue assayed eyther other passyng sore / and yf hit may please the / I requyre the of thy knyghthode telle me thy name / Sir said the knyȝt to Palomydes / that is me loth to doo / for thou hast done me wronge.
          Fair knight, said Palamedes, seems to me we have assayed, either other passing sore / and if it may please thee / I request thee, of thy knighthood, tell me thy name / Sir, said the knight to Palamedes, / I am loath to do that / for thou hast done me wrong.
        • 1803, John Smalley, Sermons:
          Undoubtedly it is to be understood, that inflicting deserved punishment on all evil doers, of right, belongs to God.
        • 2008 December 3, Rowenna Davis, The Guardian:
          The woman who danced for me said she was there of her own free will, but when I pushed a bit further, I discovered that she "owed a man a lot of money", and had to pay it back quickly.
      4. (following an intransitive verb) Indicates the source or cause of the verb. [from 10th c.]
        It is said that she died of a broken heart.
        • 2006, Joyce Carol Oates, The Female of the Species:
          He smelled of beer and cigarette smoke and his own body.
        • 2010 October 5, Rebecca Omonira-Oyekanmi, The Guardian:
          Two men, one from Somalia and one from Zimbabwe, died of terminal illnesses shortly after their incarceration ended.
      5. (following an adjective) Indicates the subject or cause of the adjective. [from 13th c.]
        I am tired of all this nonsense.
        • 2010 September 23, Bagehot, The Economist:
          Lib Dems were appalled by Mr Boles’s offer, however kindly meant: the party is so frightened of losing its independence under Mr Clegg that such a pact would “kill” him, says a senior member.
        • 2015, Vincent J. M. DiMaio, Gunshot Wounds:
          Thus, one finds individuals dead of a gunshot wound with potentially lethal levels of drugs.
    4. Expressing agency.
      1. (following a passive verb) Indicates the agent (for most verbs, now usually expressed with by). [from 9th c.]
        I am not particularly enamoured of this idea.
        • 1526, [William Tyndale, transl.], The Newe Testamẽt [] (Tyndale Bible), [Worms, Germany: Peter Schöffer], →OCLC, Acts:
          After a good while, the iewes toke cousell amonge themselves to kyll him. But their layinges awayte wer knowen of Saul.
        • 1603, Michel de Montaigne, chapter I, in John Florio, transl., The Essayes [], book II, London: [] Val[entine] Simmes for Edward Blount [], →OCLC:
          [S]he might appeare to be the lively patterne of another Lucrece, yet know I certainly that, both before that time and afterward, she had beene enjoyed of others upon easier composition.
        • 1995, The Family: A Proclamation to the World[1], The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints:
          The family is ordained of God.
        • 2008 March 27, “Selling rhythm to the world”, in The Economist:
          Colombia and Venezuela share an elegantly restrained style, with much back-stepping, smaller hand-movements and little use of the elaborate, arm-tangling moves beloved of Cuban dancers.
      2. Used to introduce the "subjective genitive"; following a noun to form the head of a postmodifying noun phrase (see also 'Possession' senses below). [from 13th c.]
        The contract can be terminated at any time with the agreement of both parties.
        • 1994, Paul Coates, Film at the Intersection of High and Mass Culture, page 136:
          In Blood and Sand, meanwhile, Valentino repeatedly solicits the attention of women who have turned away from him.
        • 2009 December 28, “Head to head”, in The Economist:
          Somehow Croatia has escaped the opprobrium of the likes of the German Christian Democrats and others that are against any rapid enlargement of the European Union to the include rest of the western Balkans.
      3. (following an adjective) Used to indicate the agent of something described by the adjective. [from 16th c.]
        It was very brave of you to speak out like that.
        • 1815 December (indicated as 1816), [Jane Austen], Emma: [], volumes (please specify |volume=I to III), London: [] [Charles Roworth and James Moyes] for John Murray, →OCLC:
          When this was over, Mr. Woodhouse gratefully observed,—"It is very kind of you, Mr. Knightley, to come out at this late hour to call upon us."
        • 2007 January 10, Dorian Lynskey, The Guardian:
          Morrissey's spokesperson says he is considering the offer. It would perhaps be rude of him to decline.
    5. Expressing composition, substance.
      1. (after a verb expressing construction, making etc.) Used to indicate the material or substance used. [from 9th c.]
        Many 'corks' are now actually made of plastic.
        • 1846 February, Henry Melville, Typee [] : A Peep at Polynesian Life, London: John Murray:
          The mallet is made of a hard heavy wood resembling ebony, is about twelve inches in length, and perhaps two in breadth, with a rounded handle at one end []
      2. (directly following a noun) Used to indicate the material of the just-mentioned object. [from 10th c.]
        She wore a dress of silk.
        • 2010 January 23, Simon Mawer, The Guardian:
          Perhaps symbolically, Van Doesburg was building a house of straw: he died within a few months of completion, not in Meudon but in Davos, of a heart attack following a bout of asthma.
        • 2014, Robert Kelly, Chung Wah Chow, Taiwan[2], 9th edition, Lonely Planet, →ISBN, →OCLC, page 253:
          It's 25km of rolling pitch from the start of the 175 to Nansi. If you want to continue riding through more undeveloped natural landscape, head up the east side of Tsengwen Reservoir.
      3. Indicating the composition of a given collective or quantitative noun. [from 12th c.]
        What a lot of nonsense!
        • 1844 January–December, W[illiam] M[akepeace] Thackeray, “The Memoirs of Barry Lyndon, Esq. [The Luck of Barry Lyndon.]”, in Miscellanies: Prose and Verse, volume III, London: Bradbury and Evans, [], published 1856, →OCLC:
          His papers at this period contain a mass of very unedifying and uninteresting documents [] .
        • 2010 October 31, Polly Vernon, The Guardian:
          I'd expected to be confronted by oodles of barely suppressed tension and leather-clad, pouty-mouthed, large-haired sexiness; the visual shorthand of rock gods in general, and Jon Bon Jovi in particular.
      4. Used to link a given class of things with a specific example of that class. [from 12th c.]
        Welcome to the historic town of Harwich.
      5. Links two nouns in near-apposition, with the first qualifying the second; "which is also". [from 14th c.]
        I'm not driving this wreck of a car.
        • 1911, Katherine Mansfield, In a German Pension:
          As he swallowed the soup his heart warmed to this fool of a girl.
        • 2010 August 22, Sean O'Hagan, The Guardian:
          "I'm having a bitch of a day," he says, after ordering a restorative pint of Guinness and flopping down in a seat by the front window.
    6. Introducing subject matter.
      1. Links an intransitive verb, or a transitive verb and its subject (especially verbs to do with thinking, feeling, expressing etc.), with its subject-matter; concerning, with regard to. [from 10th c.]
        I'm always thinking of you.
        • 1815 December (indicated as 1816), [Jane Austen], Emma: [], volumes (please specify |volume=I to III), London: [] [Charles Roworth and James Moyes] for John Murray, →OCLC:
          [H]e spoke of his uncle with warm regard, was fond of talking of him []
        • 1871, George Eliot [pseudonym; Mary Ann Evans], chapter III, in Middlemarch [], volume I, Edinburgh, London: William Blackwood and Sons, →OCLC, book I, page 44:
          You must not judge of Celia's feeling from mine. I think she likes these small pets.
        • 2010 October 19, Rebecca Seal, The Guardian:
          while producing Cook, which includes more than 250 seasonal recipes by 80 different chefs, we washed up more than 500 times (oh, how I dreamed of dishwashers).
      2. (following a noun (now chiefly nouns of knowledge, communication etc.)) Introduces its subject matter; about, concerning. [from 12th c.]
        He told us the story of his journey to India.
        • 2010 October 21, The Economist:
          Recession and rising unemployment have put paid to most thoughts of further EU enlargement.
      3. (following an adjective) Introduces its subject matter. [from 15th c.]
        This behaviour is typical of teenagers.
    7. Having partitive effect.
      1. (following a number or other quantitive word) Introduces the whole for which is indicated only the specified part or segment; "from among". [from 9th c.]
        Most of these apples are rotten.
        • 1485, Sir Thomas Malory, “lviij”, in Le Morte Darthur, book X:
          But as for me said sire Gareth I medle not of their maters therfore there is none of them that loueth me / And for I vnderstande they be murtherers of good knyghtes I lefte theyre company
          But as for me, said Sir Gareth, I do not meddle their matters, therefore none of them loves me / And, since I understand they are murderers of good knights, I left their company.
        • 1788, Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, volume VI, London: [] W[illiam] Strahan; and T[homas] Cadell, [], →OCLC:
          The dead bodies of the Koreish were despoiled and insulted; two of the most obnoxious prisoners were punished with death []
        • 2010 November 10, Michael Wood, The Guardian:
          Many of the civilisational achievements of Mesopotamia are the product of that symbiosis.
      2. (following a noun) Indicates a given part. [from 9th c.]
        • 2005, Naomi Wolf, The Treehouse, page 58:
          everyone, even the ladies of the village, called the dish tzigayner shmeklekh, or “gypsies' penises.”
        • 2006, Norman Mailer, The Big Empty:
          That, I think, is the buried core of the outrage people feel most generally.
      3. (now archaic, literary, with preceding partitive word assumed, or as a predicate after to be) Some, an amount of, one of. [from 9th c.]
        On the whole, they seem to be of the decent sort.
      4. Links to a genitive noun or possessive pronoun, with partitive effect (though now often merged with possessive senses, below). [from 13th c.]
        He is a friend of mine.
        • 1893, Oscar Wilde, A Woman of No Importance, section IV:
          He is just what I should have liked a son of mine to be.
        • 2010 August 27, Michael Tomasky, The Guardian:
          In its flattering way, the press tried to invest this habit of Bush's with the sense that it was indicative of a particularly sharp wit.
    8. Expressing possession.
      1. Belonging to, existing in, or taking place in a given location, place or time. Compare "origin" senses, above. [from 9th c.]
        He was perhaps the most famous scientist of the twentieth century.
        • 1774, Edward Long, The History of Jamaica. Or, General Survey of the Antient and Modern State of that Island, volume 2, book 2, chapter 7, 5:
          The building was erected in two years, at the parochial expence, on the foundation of the former one, which was irreparably damaged by the hurricane of Auguſt, 1712.
        • 1908, E. F. Benson, The Blotting Book:
          Thus, as he dressed, the thoughts and the rage of yesterday began to stir and move in his mind again.
        • 2003 August 20, Julian Borger, The Guardian:
          Within ten seconds, the citizens of New York, Cleveland, Detroit and Toronto were being given first-hand experience of what it was like to live in the nineteenth century.
      2. Belonging to (a place) through having title, ownership or control over it. [from 9th c.]
        The owner of the nightclub was arrested.
        • 1977 October 28, The Guardian:
          In a much-anticipated radio broadcast the Duke of Edinburgh said last night that Britain will be a grim place in the year 2000 []
        • 2001, Dictionary of National Biography, page 27:
          The third son, William John (1826-1902), was headmaster of the Boys' British School, Hitchin []
      3. Belonging to (someone or something) as something they possess or have as a characteristic; the "possessive genitive". (With abstract nouns, this intersects with the subjective genitive, above under "agency" senses.) [from 13th c.]
        Keep the handle of the saucepan away from the flames.
        • 1933, Havelock Ellis, Psychology of Sex, volume 4:
          The breasts of young girls sometimes become tender at puberty in sympathy with the evolution of the sexual organs []
        • 2010 October 29, Marina Hyde, The Guardian:
          It amounts to knocking on the door of No 10 then running away.
    9. Forming the "objective genitive".
      1. Follows an agent noun, verbal noun or noun of action. [from 12th c.]
        She had a profound distrust of the police.
        • 1611, The Holy Bible, [] (King James Version), London: [] Robert Barker, [], →OCLC, Matthew 4::
          And he saith unto them, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men.
        • 2000, Sheila Ruth, Issues in Feminism:
          Antifeminism has been a credible cover and an effective vehicle because the hatred of women is not politically anathema on either the Right or the Left.
    10. Expressing qualities or characteristics.
      1. (archaic or literary) Links an adjective with a noun or noun phrase to form a quasi-adverbial qualifier; in respect to, as regards. [from 13th c.]
        My companion seemed affable and easy of manner.
        • 1917, Zane Gray, Wildfire, page 35:
          He was huge, raw-boned, knotty, long of body and long of leg, with the head of a war charger.
        • 2004 August 11, Sean Ingle, The Guardian:
          Still nimble of mind and fleet of foot, Morris buzzed here and there, linking well and getting stuck in at every opportunity.
      2. Indicates a quality or characteristic; "characterized by". [from 13th c.]
        Pooh was said to be a bear of very little brain.
        • 1891, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The Boscombe Valley Mystery:
          His frank acceptance of the situation marks him as either an innocent man, or else as a man of considerable self-restraint and firmness.
        • 1951, Jacob Bronowski, The Common Sense of Science:
          No other man has made so deep a mark on his time and on our world unless he has been a man of action, a Cromwell or a Napoleon.
      3. Indicates quantity, age, price, etc. [from 13th c.]
        We have been paying interest at a rate of 10%.
        • 1903, Frank Norris, The Pit, Doubleday, published 1924, page 4:
          She was a tall young girl of about twenty-two or three, holding herself erect and with fine dignity.
        • 1996, Raymond A. Serway, John W. Jewett, Principles of Physics, published 2006, page 428:
          A police car, traveling southbound at a speed of 40.0 m/s, approaches with its siren producing sound at a frequency of 2 500 Hz.
      4. (US, informal, considered incorrect by some) Used to link singular indefinite nouns (preceded by the indefinite article) and attributive adjectives modified by certain common adverbs of degree.
        It's not that big of a deal.
        • 1990, Mary Crain, “The Social Construction of National Identity in Highland Ecuador”, in Anthropological Quarterly, volume 61, number 1, page 43:
          Such hegemonic projects often appropriate certain local traditions and re-inscribe them as "national," while dismissing other traditions which pose too great of a threat to the reproduction of the existing socio-political order.
        • 1998, Lyle McDonald, The Ketogenic Diet: A Complete Guide for the Dieter and Practitioner, page 98:
          For some individuals, even 1000 calories/day may be too great of a deficit.
        • 2017, Jean Reith Schroedel, Artour Aslanian, “A Case Study of Descriptive Representation: The Experience of Native American Elected Officials in South Dakota”, in American Indian Quarterly, volume 41, number 3, page 278:
          While it is quite obvious that the state continues to try and dilute the voting power of Native Americans, at least as big of a challenge is the need for mobilizing Native American voters.
    11. Expressing a point in time.
      1. (chiefly regional) During the course of (a set period of time, day of the week etc.), now specifically with implied repetition or regularity. [from 9th c.]
        Of an evening, we would often go for a stroll along the river.
        • 1861, Charles Dickens, “Tom Tiddler’s Ground. Chapter VI. Picking Up Miss Kimmeens.”, in Christmas Stories [] (The Works of Charles Dickens; XV), de luxe edition, London: Chapman and Hall, published 1881, →OCLC, page 242:
          For, sometimes of an afternoon when Miss Pupford has been reading the paper through her little gold eye-glass [], she has become agitated, []
        • 1897 October 16, Henry James, What Maisie Knew, Chicago, Ill., New York, N.Y.: Herbert S. Stone & Co., →OCLC:
          If there was a type Ida despised, Sir Claude communicated to Maisie, it was the man who pottered about town of a Sunday []
      2. (UK, dialectal, chiefly in the negative) For (a given length of time). [from 13th c.]
        I’ve not taken her out of a goodly long while.
      3. (after a noun) Indicates duration of a state, activity etc. [from 18th c.]
        After a delay of three hours, the plane finally took off.
        • 2011 March 2, Grant McCabe, The Sun:
          The cab driver's claim he was sleepwalking during the attack has already been supported by his wife of 37 years.
      4. (chiefly US) Before (the hour); to (the hour). [from 19th c.]
        I’ll be ready at ten of two
        I’ll be ready at 1:50
        What's the time? / Nearly a quarter of three.
        I'll be ready by five of noon.
        • 1940 June 17, “Little Bull Booed”, in Time:
          "Fellow Democrats," he began, "I left Washington at a quarter of two this morning [] "
        • 1982, TC Boyle, Water Music, Penguin, published 2006, page 194:
          Quarter of seven. Fifteen minutes to go.
        1. (informal) Often used without the hour
          I’ll be ready at ten of
          I’ll be ready at 1:50, or 2:50, or whatever time ending in 10 makes most sense in context.
          • 2022 May 16, Ariel Levine, 09:20 from the start, in Giancarlo Esposito, director, Better Call Saul S6E6: Axe and Grind (TV series), spoken by Private Investigator (Lennie Loftin):
            Wednesday was more of the same. Out at 08:30, got to the office by quarter of, clients all day.
    Usage notes
    edit
    • (belonging to or associated with): When applied to a person or persons, the possessive is generally used instead.
    • (containing, comprising, or made from): Of may be used directly with a verb or adjectival phrase.
    • When modifying a noun, modern English increasingly uses noun adjuncts rather than of. Examples include part of speech (16th century) vs. word class (20th century), Federal Bureau of Investigation (1908) vs. Central Intelligence Agency (1947), and affairs of the world (18th century) vs. world affairs (20th century).
    • The use of of to link nouns to attributive adjectives modified by certain adverbs is always optional; omitting of in such instances is always permissible and does not alter the meaning of the expression. Adverbs that may be used with this construction include too, so, how, as, more, less, this, and that.
    Derived terms
    edit
    edit
    Translations
    edit
    The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

    See also

    edit

    Etymology 2

    edit

    A spelling of /əv/ influenced by Etymology 1.

    Verb

    edit

    of

    1. (usually in modal perfect constructions) Eye dialect spelling of have or ’ve, chiefly in depictions of colloquial speech.
      • 1846, Linus Wilson Miller, Notes of an Exile to Van Dieman's Land (McKinstry: Fredonia, NY) p. 367
        I have refrained from giving many details which I might of done, from feelings of delicacy; indeed, they were of so dark and dreadful a nature, that I could do no more than hint at them
      • 1926, F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, Penguin, published 2000, page 33:
        "I had a woman up here last week to look at my feet, and when she have been the bill you'd of thought she had my appendicitus out."
      • 1943, Raymond Chandler, The High Window, Penguin, published 2005, page 87:
        ‘You must of left your door unlocked. Or even open.’
      • 1992, Neal Stephenson, Snow Crash, New York: Bantam Books, →ISBN, page 340:
        "You couldn't of known," Livio says.
    Usage notes
    edit
    • Not uncommonly seen in colloquial writing, outside the context of intentional eye dialect spelling. This usage is considered erroneous and often vigorously proscribed.

    Etymology 3

    edit

    Symbol

    edit

    of

    1. (stenoscript) Abbreviation of off, often

    Further reading

    edit
    • Paul Heacock [et al.], editors (2009), “of”, in Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, retrieved 21 July 2017, reproduced in the Cambridge English Dictionary website, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Anagrams

    edit

    Afrikaans

    edit

    Etymology

    edit

    From Dutch of, from Middle Dutch of, ofte.

    Pronunciation

    edit

    Conjunction

    edit

    of

    1. or
    2. whether; if

    Dutch

    edit

    Etymology

    edit

    From Middle Dutch of, ofte. In Middle Dutch the two words merged; the form of derives from Old Dutch of, from Proto-Germanic *jabai.

    Pronunciation

    edit

    Conjunction

    edit

    of

    1. (coordinating) or
      Wil je thee, of heb je liever koffie?
      Do you want tea, or would you prefer coffee?
    2. (subordinating) whether, if
      Synonym: (proscribed) als
      Ik weet niet of dat wel zo'n goed idee is.
      I don't know if that's such a good idea.
    3. (of ... of) either ... or
      Je kan kiezen: of je bent stil, of je vertrekt.
      You can choose: either you stay quiet, or you get out.
    4. (of ... of dat) whether ... or
      Ik weet niet of ik moet vertrekken of dat ik het haar moet uitleggen.
      I don't know whether I should leave or I should explain it to her.

    Derived terms

    edit

    Descendants

    edit
    • Afrikaans: of
    • Jersey Dutch: ov, of
    • Negerhollands: of
    • Aukan: ofu
    • Papiamentu: òf, of

    German Low German

    edit

    Etymology 1

    edit

    From Middle Low German af, from Old Saxon af, from Proto-West Germanic *ab, from Proto-Germanic *ab. More at off.

    Preposition

    edit

    of

    1. from

    Adverb

    edit

    of

    1. away; from
    2. off

    Adjective

    edit

    of

    1. off (not "on")

    Etymology 2

    edit

    From Old Saxon eftha.

    Conjunction

    edit

    of

    1. Synonym of àder

    Icelandic

    edit

    Etymology

    edit

    From Old Norse of-, from Proto-Germanic *uber. The original full form is seen in the prefixed form ofur- (overly, super, very). Related to yfir (above) and ofan (from above).

    Pronunciation

    edit

    Adverb

    edit

    of

    1. too (to an excessive degree)
      Ég er of falleg.
      I am too beautiful. (referring to a woman)
      Ég er of fallegur.
      I am too beautiful. (referring to a man)

    Preposition

    edit

    of

    1. about
    2. over, above

    Japanese

    edit

    Etymology

    edit

    From English of, as in X of X.

    Pronunciation

    edit

    Particle

    edit

    of(オブ) (obu

    1. (informal) Used to express that one is an exemplar.
      Synonym: の中の (no naka no)
      (ゆう)(しゃ)オブ(ゆう)(しゃ)の○○さん
      yūsha obu yūsha no ○○-san
      XX, a hero of/among heroes
      キモいof(オブ)キモい
      kimoi obu kimoi
      absolutely disgusting
      (literally, “disgusting of the disgusting”)

    See also

    edit
    • (za, with similar function, literally the)

    Luxembourgish

    edit

    Alternative forms

    edit

    Etymology

    edit

    From Middle High German af, ave, from Old High German ava, northern variant of aba, from Proto-Germanic *ab. Cognate with German ab, Dutch af, English of and off. The expected Luxembourgish forms are af (< af) and uef (< ave). The form of is probably a compromise between both variants; otherwise it would imply an irregularly lengthened Middle High German *āf, *āve.

    Pronunciation

    edit

    Adverb

    edit

    of

    1. (chiefly in compounds) off; down

    Middle Dutch

    edit

    Etymology 1

    edit

    From Old Dutch of.

    Conjunction

    edit

    of

    1. if, whether
    Usage notes
    edit

    Sometimes confused with ofte.

    Descendants
    edit
    • Dutch: of
    • Limburgish: óf

    Etymology 2

    edit

    Adverb

    edit

    of

    1. Alternative form of af

    Further reading

    edit

    Middle English

    edit

    Etymology 1

    edit

      From Old English of, an unstressed form of af, ob, æf (from, off, away), from Proto-West Germanic *ab, from Proto-Germanic *ab (away; away from).

      Preposition

      edit

      of

      1. of
        • c. 1400, Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales, General Prologue, lines 1–3:
          Whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote
          The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
          When in April the sweet showers fall
          That pierce the drought of March to the root and all
      Alternative forms
      edit
      Descendants
      edit

      References

      edit

      Etymology 2

      edit

      From Old English æf.

      Adverb

      edit

      of

      1. off
      Alternative forms
      edit
      Descendants
      edit

      References

      edit

      Etymology 3

      edit

      An alteration of oth, from Old English .

      Conjunction

      edit

      of

      1. until
      Alternative forms
      edit

      References

      edit

      Etymology 4

      edit

      Apheresis of thof, a variation of though, from Old English þēah.

      Conjunction

      edit

      of

      1. although, though

      References

      edit

      Old Dutch

      edit

      Etymology

      edit

      (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

      Conjunction

      edit

      of

      1. if, whether

      Descendants

      edit
      • Middle Dutch: of

      Further reading

      edit
      • of”, in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

      Old English

      edit

      Alternative forms

      edit

      Etymology

      edit

        Unstressed form of æf.

        Pronunciation

        edit

        Preposition

        edit

        of [+dative]

        1. from
          Hē is of þām ilcan wīċe swā iċ.
          He's from the same village as me.
        2. out of
          Of þām ǣġe crēap ān lȳtel and swīðe hungriġ trēowwyrm.
          Out of the egg came a tiny and very hungry caterpillar.
          • The Life of Saint Margaret
            Iċ nylle nān word mā of þīnum mūðe ġehīeran.
            I don't want to hear one more word out of your mouth.
          • late 10th century, Ælfric, On the Seasons of the Year
            Swā swā fiscas cwelaþ gif hīe of wætre bēoþ, swā ēac cwileþ ǣlċ eorðliċ līchama gif hē biþ þǣre lyfte bedǣled.
            Just as fish die if they're out of the water, every land animal dies if it is deprived of air.
        3. off
          • late 10th century, Ælfric, Esther
            Sē cyning slīepte his bēag of.
            The king slipped his ring off.
        4. by (indicating the creator of a work)
        5. of (Denoting material made of)
          • c. 992, Ælfric, "The Nativity of St. John the Baptist"
            "Eal his reaf wæs awefen of olfendes hǽrum, his bigleofa wæs stiðlic; ne dranc he wines drenc, ne nanes gemencgedes wætan, ne gebrowenes: ofet hine fedde, and wude-hunig, and oðre waclice ðigena."
            "All his garment was woven of camel's hair, his food was coarse; he drank not drink of wine, nor of any mixed or prepared fluid: fruit fed him and wood-honey, and other common things."

        Usage notes

        edit
        • Of does not mean "of," even though it's where the word "of" comes from. Instead, the Anglo-Saxons mostly used the genitive case where we would say "of": Dēaðes god man sċeal ofslēan and mann undēadlīcne dōn ("The god of death must be killed and man made immortal"), Iċ hine huntiġe oþ eorðan endas ("I'll hunt him to the ends of the Earth"). Even the occasional instances where "of" translates of are a survival of its original sense "from" or "out of": sē weall is ġeworht of tiġelan and eorþteorwe ("the wall is made of brick and asphalt"), Sē Hǣlend sċolde bēon of fǣmnan ġeboren ("Jesus was supposedly born of a virgin").
        • Note also that of never means "about." Phrases like "to think of" and "to speak of" are rendered with be or ymb.
        • For doing something "out of" an emotion, for is typically used instead of of: Þætte for lufum ġedōn biþ, þæt ġewierþ simle beġeondan gōde and yfele ("What is done out of love always takes place beyond good and evil").
        • For dying "of" a cause, various other prepositions or the bare dative/instrumental case are used; see sweltan.

        Descendants

        edit
        • Middle English: of
          • Scots: o
          • English: of

        Old Norse

        edit

        Etymology 1

        edit

        (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

        Preposition

        edit

        of

        1. about
          Synonym: um
        2. (archaic, poetic) over, above

        References

        edit
        • (with accusative)of”, in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

        Etymology 2

        edit

        Unclear, but totally overtook the function of g-, inherited from Proto-Germanic *ga-. This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

        Particle

        edit

        of

        1. (archaic, poetic) Indicates association or togetherness; co-.
          of + ‎barmr (bosom) + ‎-i (agent suffix) → ‎of barmi (brother, literally of the same bosom; co-bosomer)
        2. (archaic, poetic) Indicates completeness or wholeness. In verbs, also indicates perfectivity (a finished action).
          • c. 850, Þjóðólfr of Hvinir, Ynglingatal, verse 1]:
            [] Ok sikling / svigðis geira
            vágr vindlauss / of viða skyldi.
            [] And the windless wave of the spears of the bull [HORNS > MEAD] was to destroy the prince.

        Old Saxon

        edit

        Etymology

        edit

        Unstressed form of af.

        Preposition

        edit

        of

        1. above
        2. away from

        Romanian

        edit

        Pronunciation

        edit

        Interjection

        edit

        of

        1. ugh, tsk, sigh
          used for expressing pain, bitterness, regret; despair; abhorrence, disgust; admiration, enthusiasm; wonder, surprise

        Turkish

        edit

        Interjection

        edit

        of

        1. oof (often expressing that some task requires great effort)
        2. ouch (used both for literally and emotionally painful situations)
        3. ugh (expressing disgust or strong dismay)

        Volapük

        edit

        Pronoun

        edit

        of (plural ofs)

        1. she (third-person feminine)

        Declension

        edit

        Welsh

        edit

        Noun

        edit

        of

        1. Soft mutation of gof.

        Mutation

        edit
        Welsh mutation
        radical soft nasal aspirate
        gof of ngof unchanged
        Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

        West Frisian

        edit

        Etymology

        edit

        From Old Frisian jef, from Proto-Germanic *jabai.

        Pronunciation

        edit

        Conjunction

        edit

        of

        1. or

        Further reading

        edit
        • of”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

        Yola

        edit

        Preposition

        edit

        of

        1. Alternative form of o' (of)
          • 1867, GLOSSARY OF THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 58:
            Muskawn of buthther.
            A large lump of butter.
          • 1867, “THE WEDDEEN O BALLYMORE”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 5, page 96:
            To his sweethearth, an smack lick a dab of a brough.
            To his sweetheart, and smacked like a slap of a shoe.

        References

        edit
        • Jacob Poole (d. 1827) (before 1828) William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, published 1867, page 96