Open main menu

Wiktionary β

Contents

EnglishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English -te (preterite ending), -t (past participle ending), from Old English -te, -de (first and third person preterite ending), -t, -d (past participle ending), from Proto-Germanic *-id- (preterite stem ending of class 1 weak verbs) and Proto-Germanic *-idaz (past participle ending of class 1 weak verbs).

In some verbs, like lose/lost, the -t-/-t was merely an alteration of earlier -d-/-d during the Middle English period. See -ed.

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. Forms the past tense and/or past participle of some verbs (leapt, kept, dreamt, etc)
Usage notesEdit

Some verbs have both an -ed and a -t form. The -t form has become obsolete for many verbs, e.g. toucht.

Usually for verbs with "eep" or "end" at the end (e.g. kept for keep, slept for sleep, wept for weep, bent for bend, sent for send, went for wend). More rarely, for nasals (e.g. burnt for burn, dreamt for dream).

Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Probably resulting from -s + the, or various other words beginning with th-, t-.

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. An excrescent ending appended to words suffixed with -s.
    against, amidst, amongst, betwixt, whilst
Usage notesEdit

As with -st, when there is a shorter synonymous word (as in between/betwixt), the form with -t is generally considered more formal, old-fashioned, affected, and British.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Middle English -t, from Old English -t, variant of (-th), from Proto-Germanic *-þiz. More at -th.

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. (no longer productive) Alternative form of -th
    arist, drift, sight, theft, thrift, etc.



DanishEdit

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. Used to form adverbs from adjectives; -ly.
  2. Used to make neuter forms of adjectives.
  3. Used to form past participles of some verbs, like -et does.
    spis, spise, spiser, spiste, spist
    eat!, eat, eats, ate, eaten

DutchEdit

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. forms the second and third person singular of the present tense
    redden - jij redt, hij redt
  2. forms the gij - form in both present and past tense
    breken - gij breekt - gij braakt
  3. (archaic) forms the plural form of the imperative
    staken - staakt!
  4. forms the past participle of weak verbs the root of which ends in a voiceless consonant
    bedanken - bedankt
  5. forms certain verbal nouns, mostly of strong verbs
    geven - gift

EgyptianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

 
  1. Used to form feminine singular forms of nouns and adjectives.
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Afro-Asiatic *-i (genitive-possessive case ending) + -t (feminine ending).

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

 
  1. Converts nouns and prepositions into feminine adjectives: the feminine nisba adjective ending.

Etymology 3Edit

SuffixEdit

 
  1. Forms adverbs from certain adjectives; -ly

Etymology 4Edit

SuffixEdit

 
  1. Forms the infinitive of anomalous verbs, weak verbs (except for fourth weak verbs with a geminated stem), and causative biliteral verbs.
DescendantsEdit
  • Egyptian: -j (infinitival ending)

Etymology 5Edit

SuffixEdit

 
  1. Forms the complementary infinitive of all verbs.
Usage notesEdit

Weak verbs can alternatively take the endings -wt or -yt to form the complementary infinitive.

Etymology 6Edit

SuffixEdit

 
  1. Forms the subjunctive of the irregular verb jnj and the anomalous verb jwj.
Alternative formsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-44384-9
  • Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, revised second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-74144-6

FinnishEdit

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. (case suffix) Forms the nominative plural.
  2. (case suffix) Forms the accusative forms of the personal pronouns and the interrogative pronoun ken.

Usage notesEdit

  • Suffixed to the genitive singular stem. The accusative plural is identical with the nominative plural and is used for certain direct objects.
  • The personal pronouns and ken have this ending in the accusative; they are the only words that have different genitive and accusative singular forms.
nominative accusative
minä minut
sinä sinut
hän hänet
me meidät
te teidät
he heidät
kuka kenet

See alsoEdit

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. (personal) Forms the second person singular of verbs.

Usage notesEdit

Suffixed to the same stem as the first person singular suffix both in the present and the past tense.

Further readingEdit

See alsoEdit


GermanEdit

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. -ed (used to form adjectives from nouns)

Derived termsEdit



HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. (accusative suffix) Used to form the accusative case.
    külföldi (foreigner)Sok külföldit láttam a városban. (I saw many foreigners in the city.)
    óra (clock, watch, hour)Vettem egy órát. (I bought a watch.)
    ember (human)Sok embert láttunk. (We saw many people.)
    kettő (two)Hány könyvet vettél? - Kettőt. (How many books did you buy? - Two.)
  2. (locative suffix, archaic) Added to a noun or an adjective to form the locative case.
    Kaposvár (Kaposvár, Hungarian town)Kaposvárt (in Kaposvár)
    köz (gap)közt (between, among)
  3. (past tense suffix) -ed, -t. Used to form the past tense of a verb.
    él (to live)élt (lived)
    Kínában élt 10 évig - He lived in China for 10 years.
  4. (past participle suffix) -ed, -t. Used to form the past participle of a verb.
    zár (to close)zárt (closed)
    Zárt ajtók mögött tanácskoztak. - They discussed behind closed doors.
  5. (causative suffix) The causative suffix for verbs.
    terem (to come into existence)teremt (to create)
  6. (noun suffix) Added to a verb to form a noun.
    lesz (to become something)t (existence, life)
    tesz (to make, do, place)t (bet)

Usage notesEdit

  • (accusative suffix): It can be added to nouns, adjectives, numerals and pronouns. Whether a suffix-initial vowel (linking vowel) will be used is hard to predict and thus needs to be learned with each word. A rule of thumb, however, is that older and shorter words tend to incorporate a vowel, rather than simply use -t. Variants:
    -t is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-. Final -o in foreign words changes to -ó-.
    -ot is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -at is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -et is added to unrounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -öt is added to rounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
  • (locative suffix) Locative is used today only with some place names as an alternative to the inessive and superessive cases. The locative case is also to be found in short basic words like közt (between, among), from köz (gap).
  • (past participle and past tense suffix) Variants:
    -t
    -tt is added to verbs ending in a vowel (sző, , , , , )
    -ott is added to back vowel verbs
    -ett is added to unrounded front vowel verbs
    -ött is added to rounded front vowel verbs

See alsoEdit


ManxEdit

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. Alternative form of -it

Northern SamiEdit

PronunciationEdit

  This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Samic *-ktē.

SuffixEdit

-t (with odd-syllable stems -it)

  1. Forms adverbs of manner from adjectives.
Usage notesEdit

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable. When affixed to stems ending in -i and -u, there are two possible alternative forms. In the first, the suffix added with no change, while in the second, the final vowel lowered to e and o respectively and diphthong simplification is performed on the preceding syllable.

Derived termsEdit


Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Samic *-tē (partitive/ablative).

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. Forms adverbs of time.
Usage notesEdit

This suffix triggers the strong grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Derived termsEdit


Etymology 3Edit

From Proto-Samic *-mpē.

SuffixEdit

-t (with odd-syllable stems -it or -eabbo)

  1. Forms the comparative of adjectives.
Usage notesEdit

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

InflectionEdit

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

From Proto-Samic *-ntë. Cognate with Finnish -s.

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. Forms ordinal numbers from cardinals.
Usage notesEdit

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

InflectionEdit
Odd, no gradation
Attributive
Nominative -t
Genitive -da
Attributive
singular plural
Nominative -t -dat
Accusative -da -diid
Genitive -da -diid
Illative -dii -diidda
Locative -dis -diin
Comitative -diin -diiguin
Essive -din
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 5Edit

From Proto-Samic *-k, from Proto-Uralic *-t. Cognate with Finnish -t.

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. The ending of the nominative plural.
Usage notesEdit

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Etymology 6Edit

From Proto-Samic *-tēk. Cognate with Finnish -a, -da.

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. The ending of the infinitive.
Usage notesEdit

This suffix triggers the strong grade on a preceding stressed syllable.


PipilEdit

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. Plural verb suffix.
    Titakwikat
    We sing
  2. Nominal absolutive suffix.
    *siwa-siwat
    *tutu-tutut

Usage notesEdit

  • The nominal absolutive suffix -t is a truncated form of -ti used for vowel-ending stems.
  • Opposed to absolutive suffixes, construct suffixes used are -w (for vowel-ending stems), -(zero) (for consonant-ending stems) and -yu ("inalienable possession" marker)

SwedishEdit

SuffixEdit

-t

  1. Suffix to create the definite singular form of neuter nouns ending in an unstressed vowel: hjärta (heart)hjärtat (the heart)
  2. Suffix for creating adverbs out of adjectives: långsam (slow)långsamt (slowly)
  3. Suffix used on the positive form of adjectives to denote that the corresponding noun is of neuter gender, indefinite form: en gul bil (a yellow car)ett gult hus (a yellow house), the latter being neuter. However, the -a suffix is used for definite form independent of gender: den gula bilen (the yellow car)det gula huset (the yellow house).
  4. Suffix to form the past participle of weakly inflected verbs, to be used when the corresponding participle belongs with a neuter noun in indefinite singular form.
  5. Suffix for forming supine of verbs of the first (ar-verbs) and second (weak er-verbs) conjugations; see also -it and -tt