This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Germanic edit

Etymology edit

Somewhat uncertain. Reconstructed by Ringe[1] as originating from earlier *-ajaną, from Proto-Indo-European *-oyéti (factitive verb suffix). The reconstruction of this Indo-European suffix is uncertain, but it would also be the origin of the Ancient Greek -όω (-óō) contracted verbs.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit


  1. Creates stative - fientive verbs from other verbs, from adjectives and from nouns.
  2. Creates denominative verbs from nouns.
  3. Creates factitive verbs from adjectives.

Inflection edit

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Proto-West Germanic: *-ēn
    • Old English: -ian (in a few cases; preceded by a palatalised consonant or non-backed æ)
    • Old High German: -ēn
      • Middle High German: -en
  • Old Norse: -ja (only after short stems)
  • Gothic: -𐌰𐌽 (-ān)

References edit

  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN