English edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ən/, [ən], [n̩]
  • (file)
  • In many accents, -en routinely gives up its vowel syllable when given additional suffixes. For example, fatten /ˈfæt.ən/ + -ing /-ɪŋ/ can be /ˈfæt.ən.ɪŋ/ or /ˈfæt.nɪŋ/.
    • Even in many accents where this habitual syllable deletion is less usual, the syllable loss may still predominate for certain formations that have become common words in their own right, such as gardener /ɡɑː(ɹ)d.nə(ɹ)/.
    • Syllable loss is sometimes prevented to avoid merging with more normalized derivaives, such as for keeping lightening /ˈlaɪt.ən.ɪŋ/ from being pronounced identically to the established term lightning /ˈlaɪt.nɪŋ/ (notice the e is no longer written), even though they derive from a combination of lighten + -ing.
      • But syllable loss may resume with inflections that are not in danger of merging with an established word, such as enlightening, which can be pronounced /ɛnˈlaɪt.ən.ɪŋ/ or /ɛnˈlaɪt.nɪŋ/ because "enlightning" is not a common word.

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English -n, -en, past participle ending of strong verbs (compare Middle English take(n), took, taken (take, took, taken)), from Old Norse -inn, past participle ending of strong verbs (compare Old Norse taka, tók, tekinn (take, took, taken)). From Proto-Norse *-ᛁᚾᚨ- (*-ina-), from Proto-Germanic *-inaz, a variant of *-anaz. Replaced the native past participle ending of strong verbs (from Old English -en) in some words, which had weakened to -e or disappeared (compare Southern Middle English do(n), dud(e), ydo (do, did, done)), but not in others (compare cume(n), com, ycume (come, came, come)), from Proto-Germanic *-anaz, from Proto-Indo-European *-nós.

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-en

  1. (no longer productive) Denotes the past participle form when attached to a verb.
    take + ‎-en → ‎taken
    forgive + ‎-en → ‎forgiven
    prove + ‎-en → ‎proven
  2. Denotes a quasi-past participle or participle-like adjective when attached to a noun or verb.
    fork + ‎-en → ‎forken (forked)
    pave + ‎-en → ‎paven (paved)
    barefoot + ‎-en → ‎bare-footen (bare-footed)
    enslave + ‎-en → ‎enslaven (enslaved)
Usage notes edit

Some linguistic writing on English, such as The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar, uses -en as the name of an abstract morpheme which forms the past participle of all English verbs. Including ones which do not actually use the suffix -en are described as "cook + -encooked".

Derived terms edit
past participle

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle English -en, from Old English -an, from Proto-Germanic *-an-, *-in-, from Proto-Indo-European *-én-.

From Middle English -n (in words ending in a vowel: flee: fleen "flea: fleas") and -en. Noun plural marker (predominantly in Southern dialects of Middle English), from Old English nominative-accusative plural ending of weak nouns (n-stem declension); compare ‎nama m (name) + ‎-en → ‎naman (names); ‎hlǣfdīġe f (lady) + ‎-en → ‎hlǣfdīġan (ladies); ‎ēare n (ear) + ‎-en → ‎ēaran (ears). Assisted by Middle English dative plural ending -n, -en from late O.E. -un, -on, weakened form of earlier -um. Akin to Old High German n-stem (compare namo: namon "name: names"), Latin n-stem (compare homo: homin-).

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Used to denote the plural form of a small number of English nouns, the majority of whose etymologies go back to the n-stem (i.e. weak noun) declension of Germanic languages.
    Examples in general modern use:
    aurochs + ‎-en → ‎aurochsen[1]
    brother + ‎-en → ‎brethren (religious sense)[1]
    child + ‎-en → ‎children (cf. childer)[1]
    ox + ‎-en → ‎oxen[1]
    Archaic or dialectal examples:
    bee + ‎-en → ‎been
    cheese + ‎-en → ‎cheesen
    ky (cows) + ‎-en → ‎kine
    knee + ‎-en → ‎kneen
    ey + ‎-en → ‎eyren
    eye + ‎-en → ‎eyen
    feather + ‎-en → ‎feathern
    horse + ‎-en → ‎horsen
    hose + ‎-en → ‎hosen
    house + ‎-en → ‎housen
    pease + ‎-en → ‎peasen
    shoe + ‎-en → ‎shoon
    sister + ‎-en → ‎sistren
    tree + ‎-en → ‎treen
    • 1890, John Drummond Robertson, lord Henry Haughton Reynolds Moreton, A Glossary of Dialect & Archaic Words Used in the County of Gloucester:
      Moder, gyn, will not y washen' the dishen'. i. Mother, Jone, will not wash the dishes.
  2. (nonstandard, rare, often dialectal or humorous) Used to form the plural of nouns.
    box + ‎-en → ‎boxen
    VAX + ‎-en → ‎VAXen
    • 2007, James Patrick Kelly, John Kessel, Rewired: The Post-Cyberpunk Anthology:
      There was one other user logged in, “scaredy,” and he checked the process monitor and saw that scaredy had spawned all the hundreds of processes that were probing him and plenty of other boxen.
    • 2012, Jenny Lawson, Let's Pretend This Never Happened:
      Victor and I are having a huge argument about whether or not to feed the foxen. Victor says yes, because they're adorable and— according to the neighbors—are quite tame. I say no, because we have a fat little pug who likes to frolic outside occasionally and I don't want to see him eaten. I thought we were on the same page about the fox, but then Victor went and threw an apple at it. And I was all, “What the fuck? We don't feed the foxen,” and he said, “I was throwing the apple at it to chase it away,” but Victor is a tremendous liar, and he didn't go to pick up the apple, probably because he knows that foxen love apple cider.
    • 2015, David Greygoose, Brunt Boggart:
      For now the boys grew whiskers and hung fox pelts from their shoulders and the girlen all wore scarlet skirts and braided ribbons through their hair.
Usage notes edit
  • Not productive, outside of occasional humorous use, particularly in computer hacker subculture. Notable examples are boxen, Unixen, VAXen, all of which are modelled on oxen.
  • This ending is also found on some plurals that were borrowed intact from Dutch or German, like klompen, lagerstätten, lederhosen.
Derived terms edit
plural

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle English -(e)nen, -(e)nien, from Old English -nian, from Proto-Germanic *-inōną. Cognate with Danish -ne, Swedish -na, Icelandic -na.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. When attached to certain adjectives, it forms a transitive verb whose meaning is, to make (adjective). Usually, the verb is ergative, sometimes not. The same construction could also be done to certain (fewer) nouns, as, strengthen, in which case the verb means roughly, "to give (noun) to", or "to become like (noun)".
    white (adjective) + ‎-en → ‎whiten
    quick + ‎-en → ‎quicken
    strength (noun) + ‎-en → ‎strengthen
    haste + ‎-en → ‎hasten
    night + ‎-en → ‎nighten
Usage notes edit
  • Although -en is a very common verb ending, it is not currently very productive in forming new words, being mostly restricted to monosyllabic bases which end in an obstruent; new formations tend to be nonstandard or humorous.
Derived terms edit
Translations edit

Etymology 4 edit

From Middle English -en, from Old English -en, from Proto-West Germanic *-īn, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz; suffix meaning "made of, consisting of, having the qualities of" applied to nouns to form adjectives. Akin to Dutch -en, German -en, Icelandic -inn, Latin -īnus. See -ine.

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Suffix meaning "pertaining to", "having the qualities of", "resembling", "like".
    wolf + ‎-en → ‎wolven
    peach + ‎-en → ‎peachen
    goat + ‎-en → ‎goaten
  2. When attached to certain nouns that are the names of a material, it forms an adjective whose meaning is, made of (noun). This is a formative pattern with many obsolescent remnants. Fowler (1926) pointed out the tendency for the -en forms to be restricted to metaphorical and secondary senses. Changes in the form of the root noun, and the dropping of the "e" in the suffix occur. There are also orphan formations whose root has been lost to the current language.
    Current examples used in a literal and sometimes metaphorical sense:
    wood + ‎-en → ‎wooden
    gold + ‎-en → ‎golden
    wheat + ‎-en → ‎wheaten
    oat + ‎-en → ‎oaten
    silk + ‎-en → ‎silken
    earth + ‎-en → ‎earthen
    flax + ‎-en → ‎flaxen
    lead + ‎-en → ‎leaden
    wool + ‎-en → ‎woollen
    oak + ‎-en → ‎oaken
    Examples where a metaphorical sense is common but the literal sense is rare or archaic:
    brass + ‎-en → ‎brazen ("shameless")
    Rare or archaic examples:
    ash + ‎-en → ‎ashen ("made of ash-tree wood"; ashen "grey like ashes, appalled" is still current)
    box + ‎-en → ‎boxen ("made of boxwood")
    bronze + ‎-en → ‎bronzen
    silver + ‎-en → ‎silvern
    cedar + ‎-en → ‎cedarn
    leather + ‎-en → ‎leathern
    copper + ‎-en → ‎coppern
    paper + ‎-en → ‎papern
    brick + ‎-en → ‎bricken
    board + ‎-en → ‎boarden
    tree + ‎-en → ‎treen
    hemp + ‎-en → ‎hempen
    Orphan examples:
    line (flax) + ‎-en → ‎linen
Derived terms edit

Etymology 5 edit

From Middle English -en, from Old English -en, from the neuter form of -en4.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Used to form the diminutives of certain nouns.
    chick + ‎-en → ‎chicken
    maid + ‎-en → ‎maiden
    smitch, smidge + ‎-en → ‎smidgen
Derived terms edit

See also edit

Etymology 6 edit

From Middle English -en, a blending of Old English infinitives -an and -n, from Proto-Germanic *-aną; and Old English -on and -en, the indicative and subjunctive past tense plural endings of verbs.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. (obsolete) Used to form the infinitive of verbs.
  2. (obsolete) Used to form the plural present tense of verbs.
  3. (obsolete, now nonstandard, dialectal) Used to form the plural past tense of verbs.
    • 1883, Charlotte Sophia Burne, Georgina Frederica Jackson, Shropshire Folk-lore: A Sheaf of Gleanings, page 46:
      [] but they tooken on 'em soft, an' maden out as they wun right glad to see 'em agen, an axt 'em to come in an' a some mate an' drink.
    • 2010, Kathi Purnell, Silent Heroes, page 188:
      Both of them had snow on their boots, and a little on the hems of their coats, but they weren't all froze cold like yesterday. “We tooken the bus,” RJ told us.
    • 2014, John D. MacDonald, Deadly Welcome:
      Sure you've seen me before, Doyle. Turkey Kimbroy and I, we tooken you over to Davis long time ago to he'p you get in the army.
Usage notes edit
  • Having begun to fade by the 15th century, it was used in Early Modern English primarily to show archaic or rustic speech.
  • The weakening and loss of the marker caused some verbs to blend with verbs marked by Etymology 3; for example, Middle English leren (to teach) blended with lernen (to learn), which resulted in learn having a (dialectal) double meaning.

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language by David Crystal (1995, Cambridge University Press, →ISBN), page 200

Anagrams edit

Basque edit

Etymology 1 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Used to form the superlative form of adjectives and adverbs.
    handi (big) + ‎-en → ‎handien (biggest)
    zahar (old) + ‎-en → ‎zaharren (oldest)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Genitive indefinite suffix.
    Alternative form: -ren (after a vowel)
    txakur (dog) + ‎-en → ‎txakurren (of some dogs, some dogs')
  2. Genitive plural suffix.
    ahizpa (sister) + ‎-en → ‎ahizpen (of the sisters, the sisters')
  3. Used to form fractions; -th
    bost (five) + ‎-en → ‎bosten (fifth)
Declension edit
Basque inflectional suffixes
indefinite singular plural proximal plural
absolutive -∅ -a -ak -ok
ergative -(e)k -ak -ek
dative -(r)i -ari -ei -oi
genitive -(r)en -aren -en -on
comitative -(r)ekin -arekin -ekin -okin
causative -(r)engatik -arengatik -engatik -ongatik
benefactive -(r)entzat -arentzat -entzat -ontzat
instrumental -(e)z -az -ez -oz
inessive anim. -(r)engan -arengan -engan -ongan
inanim. -(e)tan -an -etan -otan
locative anim.
inanim. -(e)tako -(e)ko -etako -otako
allative anim. -(r)engana -arengana -engana -ongana
inanim. -(e)tara -(e)ra -etara -otara
terminative anim. -(r)enganaino -arenganaino -enganaino -onganaino
inanim. -(e)taraino -(e)raino -etaraino -otaraino
directive anim. -(r)enganantz -arenganantz -enganantz -onganantz
inanim. -(e)tarantz -(e)rantz -etarantz -otarantz
destinative anim. -(r)enganako -arenganako -enganako -onganako
inanim. -(e)tarako -(e)rako -etarako -otarako
ablative anim. -(r)engandik -arengandik -engandik -ongandik
inanim. -(e)tatik -(e)tik -etik -otik
partitive -(r)ik
prolative -tzat
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Pronoun edit

-en

  1. Allomorphic form of -n (that, which).

Further reading edit

Chuukese edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-en

  1. of

Synonyms edit

Danish edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Forms the singular definite form of nouns of the common gender.
  2. Forms gerunds from verbs, these nouns being indeclinable and of the common gender.
  3. (organic chemistry) Identifies an alkene, these being of either the common or the neuter gender; -ene.
  4. (obsolete) Forms adverbs from adjectives, now displaced by -t.
    hjerteligen, antageligen

Usage notes edit

  • If the noun from which the singular definite is formed already ends in an unstressed schwa, this is not doubled: kage, kagen (but if the -e is stressed, a schwa is appended normally: ske, skeen; allé, alléen). If it ends with a consonant and the last vowel is short, the last consonant is usually doubled in native and nativized words, if it is one of {k, l, m, n, p, s, t}: hat, hatten. This is however not a reliable rule.

Derived terms edit

Dutch edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ə(n)/
  • In most regions the final -n is silent except optionally in enunciation and as a hiatus breaker before a (typically unstressed) vowel in the following word. In western Belgium and parts of the north-eastern Netherlands, however, the /n/ is commonly sounded and may become syllabic [m̩], [n̩], [ŋ̍] (as in German, see below).

Etymology 1 edit

Primarily from weak class 2, from Middle Dutch -en, from Old Dutch -on, from Proto-West Germanic *-ōn, from Proto-Germanic *-ōną, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂yéti (denominative) and *-h₂ti (factitive).

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Forms verbs from nouns and adjectives. The stem of the word itself does not change.
Inflection edit

For verb stems ending in a voiced consonant:

Inflection of -en (weak)
infinitive -en
past singular -de
past participle ge- -d
infinitive -en
gerund -en n
present tense past tense
1st person singular - -de
2nd person sing. (jij) -t -de
2nd person sing. (u) -t -de
2nd person sing. (gij) -t -de
3rd person singular -t -de
plural -en -den
subjunctive sing.1 -e -de
subjunctive plur.1 -en -den
imperative sing. -
imperative plur.1 -t
participles -end ge- -d
1) Archaic.

For verb stems ending in a voiceless consonant:

Inflection of -en (weak)
infinitive -en
past singular -te
past participle ge- -t
infinitive -en
gerund -en n
present tense past tense
1st person singular - -te
2nd person sing. (jij) -t -te
2nd person sing. (u) -t -te
2nd person sing. (gij) -t -te
3rd person singular -t -te
plural -en -ten
subjunctive sing.1 -e -te
subjunctive plur.1 -en -ten
imperative sing. -
imperative plur.1 -t
participles -end ge- -t
1) Archaic.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle Dutch -ijn, -in, -en, from Old Dutch *-īn, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Forms adjectives that indicate the substance from which something is made.
Inflection edit
Inflection of -en
uninflected -en
inflected -en
comparative
positive
predicative/adverbial
indefinite m./f. sing. -en
n. sing. -en
plural -en
definite -en
partitive
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle Dutch -en, a merger of various Old Dutch infinitive suffixes:

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Ending of the infinitive form of verbs.

Etymology 4 edit

From Middle Dutch -en, from Old Dutch -an, from Proto-Germanic *-anaz, from Proto-Indo-European *-nós.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. The ending of the past participle of strong verbs. This can also function as an adjective.
Inflection edit
Inflection of -en
uninflected -en
inflected -en
comparative -ener
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial -en -ener het -enst
het -enste
indefinite m./f. sing. -en -ener -enste
n. sing. -en -ener -enste
plural -en -ener -enste
definite -en -ener -enste
partitive -ens -eners

Etymology 5 edit

From various case forms of the Germanic weak nominal inflection.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. The ending of the plural form of many nouns.
  2. Taken by adjectives used as nouns, to form the plural form of such nouns.
    groot + ‎-en → ‎de groten (the great ones)
  3. (archaic, not productive) The ending of a number of weak case endings of the adjective or the article.
    een + ‎-en → ‎ten enen male
  4. (archaic, not productive) The ending of the genitive case of certain nouns.
    de hertog + ‎-en → ‎des hertogen, a genitive preserved in 's-Hertogenbosch

Etymology 6 edit

From various first- and third-person plural forms of Germanic verbs.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. The ending of the plural forms of verbs, in both present and past tense.

Etymology 7 edit

From Old Dutch -ana, from Proto-West Germanic *-anā, from Proto-Germanic *-anē.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. A suffix present on certain adverbs.
    voor + ‎-en → ‎van voren (from the front)

Emilian edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

-en (adverbial)

  1. (enclitic, after a consonant) Alternative form of in
    Mānjen un pōk!Eat some of it! (imperative, singular)

Finnish edit

Etymology 1 edit

See -Vn (illative).

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Finnic *-dën.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Suffix for the genitive plural. Usually preceded by the plural marker -i- or -j-, but may also have a consonant separator -d- after the plural marker if the words would otherwise have 3 consecutive vowels.

Etymology 3 edit

See -Vn (possessive).

Suffix edit

-en

  1. (possessive) A variant for the third-person suffix -nsa.
  2. (personal) Forms the impersonal potential present forms of verbs. Appended to the impersonal potential stem, which consists of the first infinitive followed by the potential mood marker -ne-.
Usage notes edit

See the usage notes under -Vn and -nsa.

Etymology 4 edit

The instructive singular of -e-.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Forms the instructive case of the second infinitive of verbs.

Anagrams edit

German edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle High German -en, a merger of various terminations in Old High German reflecting different conjugational patterns, namely -an, -ōn, -en (-ien), and -nen, from Proto-Germanic *-aną, *-ōną, *-janą, *-āną, and *-naną.

Alternative forms edit

  • -n (after -er, -el; in sein, tun, and some dated/poetic/colloquial forms such as gehn, stehn)
  • -'n (alternatively in the dated/poetic/colloquial forms)

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ən/
    • IPA(key): [ən] (possible in all contexts, but rare in most regions)
    • IPA(key): [m̩] (after labial stops and sometimes labial nasals and fricatives)
    • IPA(key): [ŋ̍] (after velar stops and sometimes velar nasals and fricatives)
    • IPA(key): [l̩n] (with -l- after a full vowel)
    • IPA(key): [ɐn] (with -r- after a full vowel)
    • IPA(key): [n̩] (otherwise)

Suffix edit

-en

  1. A suffix of verbs in their infinitive form.
    Accordingly, the suffix is also applied to verbs borrowed from other languages, and may be understood as the suffix for denominal verbs in general (actually -∅ derivation or conversion plus an inflectional suffix that happens to be part of the citation form of a German verb).
    Foul + ‎-en → ‎foulen (to foul)
    managento manage
  2. A suffix indicating the 1st and 3rd person plural forms (except the present indicative sind of sein).
    wir kommenwe arrive
    sie kommenthey arrive
  3. A suffix appended to strong verb stems to form the past participle, usually together with ge-.
    fallen + ge- and -engefallen

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle High German -en, a merger of various terminations in Old High German reflecting different declensional patterns.

Alternative forms edit

  • -n (after -er, -el in nouns, but not usually in adjectives; in Herrn)

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ən/ (variants as in etymology 1)

Suffix edit

-en

  1. A suffix appended to some nouns in all of their plural forms. These nouns are so-called “weak” or “mixed” nouns; they are most often feminine, often masculine, rarely neuter.
  2. A suffix appended to weak masculine nouns in all oblique cases of the singular, and to some mixed nouns in the singular dative and accusative
  3. A suffix appended to most other nouns, the so-called “strong” nouns, in their plural dative
  4. A suffix (in fact, the most common declensional ending) which is appended to determiners, adjectives, and participles, for multiple forms of all grammatical cases, both singular and plural.
See also edit

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle High German -en, from Old High German -īn, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ən/ (variants as in etymology 1)

Suffix edit

-en

  1. A suffix which is used to create adjectives that most often refer to materials
    Gold (gold, noun) + ‎-en → ‎golden (gold, golden, adjective)

Etymology 4 edit

From the Ancient Greek -ηνός (-ēnós) feminine patronymic suffix.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-en

  1. (chemistry) -ene (alkene suffix)

Derived terms edit

Category German verbs suffixed with -en not found

Hungarian edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronominal adverbs from case suffixes (cf. postpositions)
ed suffix who? what? this that he/she
(it)*
case v. pr. c.
nom. ki mi ez az ő* / -∅
az / -∅
acc. -t / -ot /
-at / -et / -öt
kit mit ezt azt őt* / -∅
azt / -∅
c1
c2
dat. -nak / -nek kinek minek ennek annak neki neki- c
ins. -val / -vel kivel mivel ezzel/
evvel
azzal/
avval
vele c
c-f. -ért kiért miért ezért azért érte c
tra. -vá / -vé kivé mivé ezzé azzá c
ter. -ig meddig eddig addig c
e-f. -ként (kiként) (miként) ekként akként c
e-m. -ul / -ül c
ine. -ban / -ben kiben miben ebben abban benne c
sup. -n/-on/-en/-ön kin min ezen azon rajta (rajta-) c
ade. -nál / -nél kinél minél ennél annál nála c
ill. -ba / -be kibe mibe ebbe abba bele bele- c
sub. -ra / -re kire mire erre arra rá- c
all. -hoz/-hez/-höz kihez mihez ehhez ahhoz hozzá hozzá- c
el. -ból / -ből kiből miből ebből abból belőle c
del. -ról / -ről kiről miről erről arról róla c
abl. -tól / -től kitől mitől ettől attól tőle c
*: Ő and őt refer to human beings; the forms below them might be
construed likewise. – Forms in parentheses are uncommon. All »

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-en (superessive case suffix)

  1. on
    szék (chair) + ‎-en → ‎széken (on [a/the] chair)
    Az asztal mellett ültem egy széken.I sat on a chair next to the table.
    A széken könyvek hevertek.There were books on the chair.
Usage notes edit
  • (superessive case suffix) Variants:
    -n is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -on is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -en is added to unrounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ön is added to rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-en

  1. (deadjectival adverb-forming suffix) -ly. Added to an adjective to create an adverb.
    szép (beautiful) + ‎-en → ‎szépen (beautifully)
    könnyű (light, easy) + ‎-en → ‎könnyen (easily)
    (ample) + ‎-en → ‎bőven (amply)
    (faithful) + ‎-en → ‎híven (faithfully), aside from the regular en
    1. In Hungarian, this adverb form is used for certain complements that are adjectives in English.
      Nyersen eszi a répát.S/he eats carrots raw.
  2. (denumeral and depronominal adverb-forming suffix) Added to a numeral or a pronoun with this sense to create an adverb, expressing the number of people.
    kettő (two) + ‎-en → ‎ketten (two people, two of us/you/them)
    Ketten vannak a szobában.There are two people in the room.
    öt (five) + ‎-en → ‎öten (five people, five of us/you/them)
    hét (seven) + ‎-en → ‎heten (seven people, seven of us/you/them)
    Heten mentünk moziba.Seven of us went to the cinema.
    kevés (few) + ‎-en → ‎kevesen (few people, few of us/you/them)
    Sokan vannak a meghívottak, de kevesen a választottak.For many are called, but few are chosen.
    ezer (thousand) + ‎-en → ‎ezren (a thousand people, a thousand of us/you/them)
Usage notes edit
  • (deadjectival adverb-forming suffix) Variants:
    -n is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -an is added to most back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -on is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -en is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant, as well as some front-vowel words ending in a vowel. Their original word-final vowel may be lost (e.g. könnyű) or supplemented with a consonant (e.g. , ).
  • (denumeral and depronominal adverb-forming suffix) Variants:
    -n is added to some (very few) words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -an is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -en is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant, as well as some front-vowel words ending in a vowel. Their original word-final vowel may be lost (e.g. kettő).
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-en

  1. (verb-forming suffix) Added to a stem — often an onomatopoeia — to form a verb expressing an instantaneous action.
    reccsen (to crackle, to make one cracking sound)
    retten (to be frightened, to recoil, to flinch, to shy away from)
Usage notes edit
  • (verb-forming suffix) Variants:
    -on is added to some back-vowel words
    -an is added to back-vowel words
    -en is added to front-vowel words
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-en

  1. (personal suffix, chiefly dialectal or archaic) Forms the indefinite third-person singular suffix (currently only in the imperative mood as part of -jen, formerly also occurring in the indicative).
    nincsen (he/she/it isn't, there is none of it)
    van/lenni (to be)legyen (he/she/it should be, there should be)
    kér (to ask/request) + ‎-en → ‎kérjen (he/she/it should ask for some[thing])
    megy (to go) + ‎-en → ‎megyen (he/she/it goes, is going) (in the standard language: megy)
    vesz (to take/grab) + ‎-en → ‎veszen (he/she/it takes/grabs) (in the standard language: vesz)
    visz (to take/carry) + ‎-en → ‎viszen (he/she/it takes/carries) (in the standard language: visz)
Usage notes edit
  • (personal suffix) Variants:
    -n is added to certain irregular stems
    -on is added to back-vowel words
    -en is added to unrounded front-vowel words
    -ön is added to rounded front-vowel words

See also edit

Further reading edit

Japanese edit

Romanization edit

-en

  1. Rōmaji transcription of えん

Low German edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Low German -inge, from Old Saxon -unga, from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō. Cognate with Dutch -ing, Swedish -ning, German -ung, English -ing.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-en f

  1. forms nouns from verbs (called gerunds) or other nouns, usually describing either an event in which an action is carried out, or the result of that action; the equivalent of English -ing
    bedüden (to mean) + ‎-en → ‎de Bedüden (the meaning)
    Huus (house) + ‎-en → ‎de Hüsen (the dwelling)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle Low German -en, a blending of Old Saxon infinitives -an, -ian and -on, from Proto-Germanic *-aną.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Used to form the infinitive of verbs.
Alternative forms edit

Luxembourgish edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Used for some nouns to form plural forms.
  2. Used to show the infinitive form of verbs.
  3. A suffix which is used to create adjectives that refer to materials

Usage notes edit

The suffix -en, like any ending that involves either -n or -nn, is subject to the Eifeler Regel. For example, Versioune weisen.

Middle Dutch edit

Etymology 1 edit

A merger of various infinitive suffixes:

Suffix edit

-en

  1. The ending of the infinitive form of verbs, used as a suffix to form new verbs as well.
Descendants edit
  • Dutch: -en

Etymology 2 edit

From the Old Dutch [Term?] strong past participle ending -an, from Proto-Germanic *-anaz.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. The ending of the past participle of strong verbs.
Descendants edit

Etymology 3 edit

From various first and third-person plural forms of Germanic verbs.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. The ending of the first- and third-person plural forms of verbs.
Descendants edit

Etymology 4 edit

From Old Dutch *-īn, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Alternative form of -in

Middle English edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Norse -inn, past participle ending of strong verbs, from Proto-Norse -ᛁᚾᚨᛉ (*-inaz), from Proto-Germanic *-inaz, *-anaz (past participle ending of strong verbs). Replaced the native past participle ending of strong verbs (from Old English -en) in some words, which had weakened to -e or disappeared.

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Denotes the past participle form when attached to a strong verb.
Usage notes edit

In many cases y- and -en are added together as a circumfix.

The full -en was better-preserved in the northern dialects, whereas in many cases the southern dialects shortened the affix to -n.

Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
References edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old English -an.

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Denotes the infinitive when attached to verbs.
Derived terms edit
References edit

Etymology 3 edit

From Old English -on, -en.

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Denotes the past indicative plural form of verbs.
  2. Denotes the present and past subjunctive plural form of verbs.
  3. Denotes the present indicative plural form of certain verbs.
Usage notes edit

This suffix was increasingly reduced to -e.

The use of this suffix as present indicative plural was common in the Midland area, replacing -eth, -eþ.

Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
References edit

Etymology 4 edit

From Old English -an, a plural and oblique case marker.

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Denotes the plural form of certain nouns.
  2. Denotes the oblique cases of certain nouns.
  3. Denotes the oblique cases and plural forms of weak adjectives.
Usage notes edit

This suffix as a plural marker is most heavily used in early Middle English, and is generally favoured in southern dialects, whereas northern dialects largely supplanted it with -es early.

Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
References edit

Etymology 5 edit

From Old English -um.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Denotes the dative singular and plural of strong adjectives.
References edit

Etymology 6 edit

From Old English -en (characteristic of; made of), from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Attached to a noun to form an adjective describing something as characteristic of, like, or pertaining to that noun.
  2. Attached to a noun that denotes a material to form an adjective describing something as made of that material.
Usage notes edit

The affixion of -en is sometimes accompanied by a mutation in the root vowel.

Derived terms edit
Adjectives formed with -en denoting materials
Descendants edit
References edit

Etymology 7 edit

From Old English -en.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Denotes a diminutive form of a noun.
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit

Etymology 8 edit

From Old English -en.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Denotes a female form of a small, fixed number of nouns.
Derived terms edit
References edit

Etymology 9 edit

From Old English -nian, from Proto-Germanic *-inōną.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Alternative form of -enen.

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Etymology edit

From Ancient Greek -ηνή (-ēnḗ), feminine form of -ηνός (-ēnós, added to place name to form an adjective), from -νός (-nós), alternative form of -νος (-nos), from Proto-Indo-European *-nós (creates verbal adjectives from roots).

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-en (definite singular neuter -enet, definite singular masculine -enen, indefinite plural -en or -ener, definite plural -enene or -ena)

  1. (organic chemistry) Used to form nouns denoting alkynes; -ene
    acetylen, benzenacetylene, benzene
  2. (organic chemistry) Used to form nouns denoting alkenes; -ene
    etylen, propylenethylene, propylene

References edit

  • “-en” in Det Norske Akademis ordbok (NAOB).

Anagrams edit

Old English edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Proto-West Germanic *-īn, from Proto-Germanic *-īną.

Suffix edit

-en n

  1. (causes i-mutation) used to create diminutive neuter nouns
    mæġeþ (girl) + ‎-en → ‎mæġden (“girl,” originally “little girl”)
    cocc (rooster) + ‎-en → ‎ċycen, ċicen (chick)
    broþ (broth, brewing) + ‎-en → ‎bryþen (brewing, drink)
Declension edit
Neuter

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Proto-West Germanic *-ini, from Proto-Germanic *-inī.

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-en f

  1. (often causes i-mutation) used to create feminine nouns from other nouns
    god ((male) god) + ‎-en → ‎gyden (goddess) (with i-mutation)
    þēow ((male) servant) + ‎-en → ‎þiewen (female servant) (without i-mutation)
Declension edit
Feminine
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Inherited from Proto-West Germanic *-īn, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. (causes i-mutation) adjectival suffix meaning "material made of, consisting of”, also sometimes “characteristic of”.
    gold (gold) + ‎-en → ‎gylden (golden)
    ātor (poison) + ‎-en → ‎ǣtren (venomous, poisonous)
    stān (stone) + ‎-en → ‎stǣnen (stonen)
    āc (oak) + ‎-en → ‎ǣcen (oaken)
    trēow (tree) + ‎-en → ‎triewen (wooden)
    līn (flax) + ‎-en → ‎līnen (linen)
    (sea) + ‎-en → ‎sǣn (marine)
    fæder (father) + ‎-en → ‎fæderen (paternal)
Declension edit
Descendants edit

Etymology 4 edit

Inherited from Proto-West Germanic *-an, from Proto-Germanic *-anaz.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. (verbal suffix) past participle ending of strong verbs
    ġecumencome
    ġecorfencarved
    ġeswōgenswooned

Etymology 5 edit

Proto-Germanic *-an, from Proto-Germanic *-an-.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. (adjective suffix) meaning belonging to or characterised by
    tungol (star) + ‎-en → ‎tunglen (of the stars, sidereal, starry)
    fæder (father) + ‎-en → ‎fæderen (paternal, of a father)
    hund (dog, hound) + ‎-en → ‎hunden (canine)

Etymology 6 edit

Inherited from Proto-Germanic *-īni, from Proto-Germanic *-īniz. Sometimes with geminate -nn-, probably due to confusion with the feminine suffix from *-inī.

Suffix edit

-en f

  1. (causes i-mutation) forms nouns from class 1 weak verbs
    byrgan (to bury) + ‎-en → ‎byrgen (burying, grave)
    sellan (to give, grant) + ‎-en → ‎selen (giving, gift)
    þicgan (to take, accept) + ‎-en → ‎þigen (taking) (inflected as strong and weak)
Declension edit

Polish edit

Etymology edit

Derived from Ancient Greek -ηνός (-ēnós).

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-en m inan

  1. (organic chemistry) -ene (alkene)
    acetyl + ‎-en → ‎acetylen

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

Romani edit

Alternative forms edit

  • -ěn (International Standard)

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Forms the accusative plural of oikoclitic animate nouns
    rrom (Romani man) + ‎-en → ‎rromen
    daj (mother) + ‎-en → ‎dajen

Derived terms edit

Scots edit

Etymology edit

From Middle English -en, from Old English -en (characteristic of; made of).

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Attached to a noun to form an adjective describing something as characteristic of, like, or pertaining to that noun.
  2. Attached to a noun that denotes a material to form an adjective describing something as made of that material.

Derived terms edit

Slovene edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *-ьnъ.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ən

  1. Suffix appended to words to create an adjective.

Derived terms edit

Spanish edit

Etymology edit

From Latin -ent and -unt.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person plural present indicative of -er and -ir verbs.
  2. Suffix indicating the third-person plural present subjunctive of -ar verbs.
  3. Suffix indicating the third-person plural imperative of -ar verbs.

See also edit

Swedish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From forms of Old Norse hinn (demonstrative pronoun), suffixed to the end of the noun stem. From Old Norse -inn, -in, from Proto-Germanic *jainaz, from Proto-Indo-European *i-.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Suffix for definite form singular of common gender nouns which end in a consonant, e.g. ‎fisk (fish) + ‎-en → ‎fisken (the fish); see also -n.
  2. Definite plural suffix for certain nouns; see also -na.
    1. (neuter nouns ending in a consonant)träd (tree) + ‎-en → ‎träden (the trees)
    2. (common-gender nouns in the fifth declension (with a suffixless plural) except for those ending in -are)gäss (geese) + ‎-en → ‎gässen (the geese)
    3. (the irregular neuter plurals ögon ("eyes") and öron ("ears"))

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Norse -inn, past participle ending of strong verbs.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Suffix for the past participle of verbs belonging to the fourth (strong) declension, e.g. ‎sjunga (sing) + ‎-en → ‎sjungen (sung), ‎skjuta (shoot) + ‎-en → ‎skjuten (shot).

Etymology 3 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “This certainly has multiple etymologies.”)

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Suffix for indefinite form plural of only the neuter noun huvud (head), e.g. ‎huvud (head) + ‎-en → ‎huvuden (heads).
  2. Suffix which converts a few adjectives into adverbs, e.g. ‎möjlig (possible) + ‎-en → ‎möjligen (possibly).

Anagrams edit

Welsh edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Welsh -en, from Old Welsh -en, from Proto-Brythonic *-enn. Cognate with Cornish -en, Breton -enn.

Suffix edit

-en f (masculine -yn)

  1. Used to form the singulative of certain words.
    llygod (mice) + ‎-en → ‎llygoden (mouse)
    sêr (stars) + ‎-en → ‎seren (star)
    coed (trees, wood) + ‎-en → ‎coeden (tree)
  2. Used to form certain singular words.
    llysywen (eel)
    matsien (match)
    taten (potato)
  3. diminutive suffix
    pêl (ball) + ‎-en → ‎pelen (little ball, pellet)
    lloer (moon) + ‎-en → ‎lloeren (satellite)
    gwraig (woman, wife) + ‎-en → ‎gwreigen (little woman, little wife)
  4. female or feminine person or creature
    coch (red) + ‎-en → ‎cochen ((female) redhead)
    clebr (gossip, chatter) + ‎-en → ‎clebren ((female) gossip)
    gwlith (dew) + ‎-en → ‎gwlithen (slug)
  5. suffix indicating an object, item, thing
    cwyr (wax) + ‎-en → ‎cwyren (cake or tablet of wax)
    calch (lime, chalk) + ‎-en → ‎calchen (limestone)
    awyr (sky) + ‎-en → ‎awyren (aeroplane)
    crwm (curved) + ‎-en → ‎cromen (dome)

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Used to form plural nouns.
    Synonyms: -aid, -aint, -au, -ed, -edd, -i, -iadau, -iaid, -iau, -ion, -od, -oedd, -on, -ydd, -yr, -ys
    ych (ox) + ‎-en → ‎ychen (oxen)

Etymology 3 edit

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-en

  1. (colloquial) verb suffix for the first-person plural conditional
  2. (colloquial) verb suffix for the third-person plural conditional
Derived terms edit

References edit

R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “-en”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Yucatec Maya edit

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Suffix indicating the first-person singular present copular; added to nouns and adjectives
    Koolnáalen.I am a farmer.
    Teen na'en.I am a mother.
    Na'ajen.I am thirsty.

Suffix edit

-en

  1. Suffix indicating the second-person plural imperative
    Ooken!Enter!