English

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Alternative forms

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  • -ian (euphonic variant, also spelled -aean or -æan)
  • -n (when added to a word ending in a)

Etymology

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From Middle English -an, regularly -ain, -ein, -en, from Old French -ain, -ein, or before i, -en (modern French -ain, -en, feminine -aine, -enne), from Latin -ānus (feminine -āna), which forms adjectives of belonging or origin from a noun, being -nus [cognate with Ancient Greek -νος (-nos)] preceded by a vowel, from Proto-Indo-European *-nós. Cognate with English -en. Compare with -in, -ine.

Suffix

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-an

  1. Of or pertaining to; an adjectival suffix appended to various words, often nouns, to make an adjective form. (Often added to words of Latin origin, but also used with words of other origins. When a word ends in a, -n is used instead.)
    Synonyms: -al, -ar, -ese, -esque, -ic, -id, -ish, -like, -oid, -ous, -y
    Rome + ‎-an → ‎Roman
  2. Appended to nouns to form an agent noun. (When males with a profession are distinguished from females, males are -an, females -(i)enne.)
    comedy + ‎-an → ‎comedian
    history + ‎-an → ‎historian

Derived terms

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Translations

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Anagrams

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Azerbaijani

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Suffix

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preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / Ə / İ / Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -an -ən
postvocalic -yan -yən

-an

  1. Postconsonantal form of -ən after the vowels A / I / O / U.

Bikol Central

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Etymology

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From Proto-Philippine *-an, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-an, from Proto-Austronesian *-an.

Suffix

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-an

  1. a place where a large quantity of the thing meant by the root is put, planted, or can be found
    basura (trash) + ‎-an → ‎basurahan (trash can)
  2. a place where the action expressed by the root is performed
    kawat (play) + ‎-an → ‎kawatan (playground)

Chuukese

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Suffix

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-an

  1. (added to possessive nouns) his, hers, its
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Cimbrian

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Etymology

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From Middle High German -en, a merger of various terminations in Old High German reflecting different conjugational patterns, namely -an, -ōn, -en (-ien), and -nen, from Proto-Germanic *-aną, *-ōną, *-janą, *-āną, and *-naną. Cognate with German -en.

Suffix

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-an

  1. A suffix of all verbs in their infinitive form.

Czech

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Czech -ěnín, from Proto-Slavic *-janinъ.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-an m anim (noun-forming suffix, female equivalent -anka)

  1. forms nouns, including inhabitant names

Derived terms

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Further reading

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  • -an in Slovník afixů užívaných v češtině, 2017

Esperanto

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Suffix

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-an

  1. Obsolete form of -am.

See also

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Finnish

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Etymology 1

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From earlier -han, -hVn (now dialectal), from Proto-Finnic *-hën, *-sën (passive or reflexive suffix), the same as the third-person singular possessive suffix (see the possessive suffix entry on -Vn). Initial -ta- is from the passive marker *-tta-.

Suffix

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-an (front vowel harmony variant -än, linguistic notation -An)

  1. (personal) Forms the impersonal indicative present forms of verbs, appended to the first infinitive.
Usage notes
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Attached to the passive verb stem.

Etymology 2

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See -Vn (illative suffix).

Suffix

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-an (front vowel harmony variant -än, linguistic notation -An)

  1. (case suffix) A suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.
    laiva + ‎-an → ‎laivaan

Etymology 3

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See -Vn (possessive suffix).

Suffix

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-an (front vowel harmony variant -än, linguistic notation -An)

  1. (possessive) A variant for the third-person suffix -nsa.
Usage notes
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See the usage notes under -Vn and -nsa.

Anagrams

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Fula

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Affix

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-an

  1. (Pulaar) indicates that the subject is doing the verb for someone or something
    defde (to cook) + ‎-an → ‎defande (to cook for someone)

References

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  • M. Niang, Pulaar-English English-Pulaar Standard Dictionary, New York: Hippocrene Books, 1997.

German

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Etymology

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From Latin -ānus.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-an n (genitive -ans, plural -ane)

  1. (organic chemistry) -ane
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Hungarian

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix

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-an

  1. (deadjectival adverb-forming suffix) Added to an adjective to create an adverb.
    pontos (accurate) + ‎-an → ‎pontosan (accurately)
  2. (denumeral and depronominal adverb-forming suffix) Added to a numeral or a pronoun with this sense to create an adverb, expressing the number of people.
    hat (six) + ‎-an → ‎hatan (six people, six of us/you/them)
    Hatan mentünk moziba.Six of us went to the cinema.
    nyolc (eight) + ‎-an → ‎nyolcan (eight people, eight of us/you/them)
    Nyolcan vannak a szobában.There are eight people in the room.
    hány (how many) + ‎-an → ‎hányan (how many (of us/you/them))
    néhány (some, a few) + ‎-an → ‎néhányan (some (of us/you/them))
    sok (many) + ‎-an → ‎sokan (many (of us/you/them))
    Sokan vannak a meghívottak, de kevesen a választottak.For many are called, but few are chosen.
    millió (million) + ‎-an → ‎millióan (a million (of us/you/them))
Usage notes
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  • (deadjectival adverb-forming suffix) Variants:
    -n is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -an is added to most back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -on is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -en is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant, as well as some front-vowel words ending in a vowel. Their original word-final vowel may be lost (e.g. könnyű) or supplemented with a consonant (e.g. , ).
  • (denumeral and depronominal adverb-forming suffix) Variants:
    -n is added to some (very few) words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -an is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -en is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant, as well as some front-vowel words ending in a vowel. Their original word-final vowel may be lost (e.g. kettő).
Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix

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-an

  1. (verb-forming suffix) Added to a stem ― often an onomatopoeia ― to form a verb expressing an instantaneous action.
    kattan (to click, to make one clicking sound)
    robban (to explode)
Usage notes
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  • (verb-forming suffix) Variants:
    -on is added to some back-vowel words
    -an is added to back-vowel words
    -en is added to front-vowel words
Derived terms
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See also

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Further reading

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Indonesian

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Malay -an, from Classical Malay -ان (an), from Proto-Malayic *-an, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-an, from Proto-Austronesian *-an.

Suffix

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-an

  1. Added to a noun
    1. Suffix for collectivity
      laut (sea) + ‎-an → ‎lautan (ocean)
    2. Suffix for place
      pangkal (origin) + ‎-an → ‎pangkalan (base)
    3. Suffix for value
      ribu (thousand) + ‎-an → ‎ribuan
    4. Suffix for measurement result; -s
      kilo (kilo) + ‎-an → ‎kiloan
    5. (colloquial) -s; Suffix for quantity (about value)
      ratus (hundred) + ‎-an → ‎ratusan (hundreds)
    6. -ly, specifying time intervals, having the sense of "occurring at such intervals".
      hari (day) + ‎-an → ‎harian (daily)
  2. Added to an verb to create an noun
    1. Suffix for object
      makan (to eat) + ‎-an → ‎makanan (food)
    2. Suffix for place
      kubur (to bury) + ‎-an → ‎kuburan (grave)
    3. Suffix for result
      didik (to educate) + ‎-an → ‎didikan
    4. Suffix for tool
      timbang (to weigh) + ‎-an → ‎timbangan (balance)
    5. Suffix for way or method
      pimpin (to lead) + ‎-an → ‎pimpinan (leader)
  3. Added to an adjective to create an noun
    1. Suffix for having property
      asin (salty) + ‎-an → ‎asinan (pickle)
    2. (colloquial) Suffix for intensity (quality or quantity)
      tinggi (high) + ‎-an → ‎tinggian (higher)
  4. Suffix for similarity

Etymology 2

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Semantic loan from Javanese -ꦲꦤ꧀ (-an).

Suffix

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-an

  1. verb-forming
    1. (colloquial) to use of [base]
      sepeda (bicycle) + ‎-an → ‎sepedaan (to ride a bicycle)
    2. (colloquial) to hold or to have [base]
      selamat (safe) + ‎-an → ‎selamatan (to celebrate with offerings to the spirits to assure the safety)
      rujak (a kind of salad) + ‎-an → ‎rujakan (to have rujak to be eaten or made)
    3. (colloquial) to do as indicated by the [base]
      sendiri (alone) + ‎-an → ‎sendirian (by oneself)
  2. noun-forming
    1. (colloquial) the location of [base]
      sekolah (school) + ‎-an → ‎sekolahan (school complex)
    2. (colloquial) the cost of [base]
      becak (rickshaw) + ‎-an → ‎becakan (rickshaw fare)
    3. (colloquial) [base]-usage
      sepeda (bicycle) + ‎-an → ‎sepedaan (bicycle-riding)
    4. (colloquial) event of [base]
      selamat (safe) + ‎-an → ‎selamatan (celebration with offerings to the spirits to assure the safety)
      rujak (a kind of salad) + ‎-an → ‎rujakan (rujak eating or production)
      susu (milk) + ‎-an → ‎susuan (breast-feeding period)

Etymology 3

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Semantic loan from Javanese -ꦲꦼꦤ꧀ (-en).

Suffix

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-an

  1. (colloquial) suffering of [base]
    koreng (ulcer) + ‎-an → ‎korengan (serious infection disease)
    uban (grey hair) + ‎-an → ‎ubanan (grey haired condition)

Derived terms

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References

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  • Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa (2017) Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia [Standard Grammar of Indonesian Language]‎[1] (in Indonesian), 4 edition, Jakarta: Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, →ISBN, archived from the original on 13 June 2022
  • James N. Sneddon (2010) Indonesian : a comprehensive grammar, 2 edition, London: Roultedge, →ISBN, →OCLC

Malay

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Etymology

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From Proto-Malayic *-an, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-an, from Proto-Austronesian *-an.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-an (Jawi spelling -ان)

  1. Suffix for collectivity
  2. Suffix for similarity
  3. Suffix for object
  4. Suffix for place
  5. Suffix for instrument
    bangun (to wake up, to get up) + ‎-an → ‎bangunan (building)

Manx

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Etymology

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From Old Irish -án, from Primitive Irish -ᚐᚌᚅᚔ (-agni).

Suffix

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-an m

  1. Alternative form of -ane

Derived terms

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Mokilese

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Suffix

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-an

  1. Used to form stative verbs from nouns

Ojibwe

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Final

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-an

  1. be in a state or condition

Derived terms

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See also

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References

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Suffix

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-an

  1. A suffix denoting the plural of an inanimate noun
  2. A suffix denoting the obviative form of an animate noun
  3. A suffix denoting the second-person singular imperative of a transitive inanimate verb (vti)

Usage notes

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As the suffix denoting the second-person singular imperative form, -an also acts as the class marker for unmarked (-am theme) transitive inanimate verbs (vti).

See also

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Old English

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Germanic *-aną.

Suffix

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-an

  1. (verbal suffix) used to form the infinitive of most class I verbs (exceptions are verbs like flēon (to flee))
    singanto sing
    nimanto take

Conjugation

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Etymology 2

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From Proto-West Germanic *-anā, from Proto-Germanic *-anē.

Alternative forms

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Suffix

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-an

  1. Forms adverbs with ablative direction.
    ēastanfrom the east
    westanfrom the west

Old Galician-Portuguese

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Etymology

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Inherited from Latin -ant.

Suffix

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-an (1st conj.)

  1. a suffix indicating the third-person plural indicative present of a verb in -ar
    amar (to love) + ‎-an → ‎aman ([They] love)
    cantar (to sing) + ‎-an → ‎cantan ([They] sing)

Descendants

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  • Galician: -an
  • Portuguese: -am

Old Norse

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Etymology 1

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Presumably from Proto-Germanic *-ōniz.

Suffix

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-an

  1. (deverbative suffix) Used to derive nouns from class 2 weak verbs.
    friða (to pacify) + ‎-an → ‎friðan (pacifying)
    sanna (to assert, prove) + ‎-an → ‎sannan (assertion, confirmation)
    synja (to deny) + ‎-an → ‎synjan (denial)
Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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Inherited from Proto-Norse -ᚨᚾᚨ (-ana), from Proto-Germanic *-anē.

Suffix

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-an

  1. Forms adverbs with ablative direction.
Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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Suffix

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-an

  1. strong accusative singular ending of adjectives

Old Saxon

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Etymology

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From Proto-Germanic *-aną.

Suffix

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-an

  1. (verbal suffix) used to form the infinitive of strong verbs (exceptions are a few verbs ending in -ian like biddian or liggian)
    drinkan (to drink)
    hwerƀan (to travel)

Phalura

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-an

  1. Third person plural suffix

Alternative forms

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  • -íin (With e-ending verb stems)
  • -óon (With a-ending verb stems)
  • -en (Biori)
  • -éen (With e-ending verb stems in Biori)
  • -áan (With a-ending verb stems in Biori)

References

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  • Liljegren, Henrik, Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[2], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Polish

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /an/
  • Rhymes: -an
  • Syllabification: an

Suffix

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-an m

  1. (chemistry) -ate, used to form names of derivates of oxyacids whose name ends with -owy (-ic)
    chlor (chlorine) + ‎-an → ‎chloran (chlorate)
  2. forms people
    młody + ‎-an → ‎młodzian

Declension

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Inanimate declension:

Animate declension:

Derived terms

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Further reading

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  • -an in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Romanian

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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Borrowed from Latin -anus.

Suffix

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-an m or n (feminine singular -ană, masculine plural -ani, feminine and neuter plural -ane)

  1. Forms adjectives and nouns describing things and characteristics of a city, region, or country; -an
    Australia (Australia) + ‎-an → ‎australian (Australian)
    America (America) + ‎-an → ‎american (American)
Usage notes
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For the countries that end in -ia, the plural form of the suffix is -ieni when masculine and -iene when feminine/neuter.

Etymology 2

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix

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-an m or n (feminine singular -ană, masculine plural -ani, feminine and neuter plural -ane)

  1. Added to nouns and adjectives as an augmentative suffix.
    gras (fat) + ‎-an → ‎grăsan (fatso)
  2. Forms names of male animals.
    gâscă (goose) + ‎-an → ‎gâscan (gander)
Declension
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Derived terms
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Scottish Gaelic

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Etymology 1

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From Old Irish -án, from Primitive Irish -ᚐᚌᚅᚔ (-agni).

Pronunciation

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Usage notes

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The non-schwa clear vowel /a/ distinguishes this from the homograph plural suffix -an which is pronounced /ən/ i.e. with a schwa.

Suffix

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-an m

  1. A masculine suffix used to form nouns meaning a smaller form of something, often used for male given names.
    Cailean, Eòghan, Ailean, Beathan
    clàran, clachan, bioran

Etymology 2

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Cognate to Irish -anna, Manx -yn.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-an pl

  1. Used to form regular plurals of nouns.
    clach (stone) + ‎-an → ‎clachan
    damh (ox, stag) + ‎-an → ‎damhan
    leannan (lover, sweetheart) + ‎-an → ‎leannanan
Derived terms
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Serbo-Croatian

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Etymology 1

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix

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-an (Cyrillic spelling -ан)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a (often negative) feature or endearment.

Etymology 2

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ьnъ.

Suffix

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-an (Cyrillic spelling -ан)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create an adjective.
    jad(iti) + ‎-an → ‎jadan (miserable)
Derived terms
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See also

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Spanish

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Etymology 1

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From Latin -ant, the third-person plural present active indicative ending of first conjugation verbs.

Suffix

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-an

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person plural (also used with ustedes) present indicative of -ar verbs.

Etymology 2

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From Latin -eant, Latin -ant, and Latin -iant, the third-person plural present active subjunctive endings of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively.

Suffix

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-an

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person plural (also used with ustedes) present subjunctive of -er and -ir verbs.
  2. Suffix indicating the third-person plural imperative of -er and -ir verbs.
See also
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Swedish

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Etymology 1

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From Old Norse -an.

Suffix

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-an

  1. making a noun from a verb, similar to -ing and -ning, having -ningar as the plural.
    predika (to preach) + ‎-an → ‎predikan (a sermon)

Etymology 2

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Ultimately from Latin -anus.

Suffix

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-an

  1. -an; making a noun, describing a person by belief or nationality
    Tibet + ‎-an → ‎tibetan
    Luther + ‎-an → ‎lutheran
    vegetarian

Derived terms

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Anagrams

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Tagalog

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Proto-Philippine *-an, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-an, from Proto-Austronesian *-an.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-an (verb-forming suffix, Baybayin spelling ◌ᜈ᜔ or ᜀᜈ᜔)

  1. object trigger: to do something to a person or a thing
    Buksan mo ang pinto.(You) open the door (door is focused).)
  2. object trigger: to cause something to become; to make
    Binagalan ni Sue ang kotse.Sue slowed down the car. (The car is focused.)
  3. directional trigger: to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of
    Tinitingnan ko ang manwal.I'm looking at the manual. (The manual is focused).)
  4. benefactive trigger: to do something for
    Titirhan ko si Roy ng keyk.I'll leave some cake for Roy. (Roy is focused).)
  5. object trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
    Winawalis-walisan; ko ang sahig.I'm sweeping the floor a bit. (The floor is focused).)
  6. directional trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of, occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
    Tinutulung-tulungan ni Jessy si Patty.Jessy helped Patty a bit. (Patty is focused).)
  7. object trigger: to perform the action of the verb on something
    Huwag mong sulatan ang dokumento.Don't write anything on the document.

Suffix

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-an (noun-forming suffix, Baybayin spelling ◌ᜈ᜔ or ᜀᜈ᜔)

  1. Forms locative nouns expressing where a large quantity of the thing meant by the root is put, planted, or can be found
    aklat (book) + ‎-an → ‎aklatan (library)
    basura (trash) + ‎-an → ‎basurahan (trash can)
  2. Forms locative nouns where the action expressed by the root is performed
    kain (eat) + ‎-an → ‎kainan (place where people eat e.g. restaurant, café,...)
  3. Forms nouns expressing period in which the action expressed by the root is collectively performed
    ani (harvest) + ‎-an → ‎anihan (harvest time)
    pasok (entry, class, work) + ‎-an → ‎pasukan (school time, school year)
  4. Forms nouns indicating a tool or an object that is used to perform what is meant by the root
    oras (time) + ‎-an → ‎orasan (clock, watch)
    timbang (weight) + ‎-an → ‎timbangan (weighing scale)
  5. Forms nouns signifying reciprocal or joint performance of the action expressed by the root
    sayaw (dance) + ‎-an → ‎sayawan (dancing together)
    kanta (sing) + ‎-an → ‎kantahan (singing together)
  6. Used to create a diminutive, pretensive, or imitative form of something (used with reduplication of root word)
    bahay (house) + ‎-an → ‎bahay-bahayan (toy house)
    Diyos (God) + ‎-an → ‎diyos-diyosan (false god)
    baril (gun) + ‎-an → ‎baril-barilan (toy gun)

Suffix

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-an (adverb-forming suffix, Baybayin spelling ◌ᜈ᜔ or ᜀᜈ᜔)

  1. (appended to numbers) Used to indicate groups.
    tatlo (three) + ‎-an → ‎tatluhan (in threes, three at a time)
    dalawampu (twenty) + ‎-an → ‎dalawampuan (in groups of twenty, twenty at a time)

Usage notes

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  • Normally, /h/ is inserted before -an when a root word ending with a vowel is not followed by a glottal stop. In some cases, phoneme change can occur and /h/ becomes /n/.
    ganti + ‎-an → ‎gantihan
    talo + ‎-an → ‎talunan
  • Sometimes, the final vowel of the root word disappears when the suffix is added.
    sunod + ‎-an → ‎sundan
    takip + ‎-an → ‎takpan
  • Due to allophony, /d/ turns into /r/ when inserted before -an.
    buklod + ‎-an → ‎bukluran
    bakod + ‎-an → ‎bakuran
    bayad + ‎-an → ‎bayaran

Derived terms

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Turkish

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Etymology

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From Ottoman Turkish ـان (-an), from Old Anatolian Turkish [Term?], from Proto-Turkic *-gan.

Suffix

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-an

  1. Creates non-past participles.
    oturmak (to sit) + ‎-an → ‎oturan ((someone) who sits)
    kırılmak (to be broken) + ‎-an → ‎kırılan ((something) that gets broken)

Volapük

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Suffix

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-an

  1. Used to indicate someone who is or does something

Derived terms

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Welsh

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Celtic *-agnos.

Suffix

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-an

  1. diminutive suffix, -let
    bwyell (axe) + ‎-an → ‎bwyellan (small axe, hatchet)
    gwraig (woman, wife) + ‎-an → ‎gwreigan (little woman, little wife)
    barf (beard) + ‎-an → ‎barfan (little beard, goatee, whiskers)
  2. person or object with characteristics of the root word
    mud (mute) + ‎-an → ‎mudan (mute person)
    llai (grey) + ‎-an → ‎lleian (nun)
    crwm (crooked, curved) + ‎-an → ‎cryman (sickle, pruning hook)
  3. used to form pet names
    Gwen + ‎-an → ‎Gwennan
    Dai + ‎-an → ‎Deian
    Elisabeth + ‎-an → ‎Bethan

Etymology 2

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Alternative forms

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Suffix

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-an

  1. verbnoun suffix

Etymology 3

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Suffix

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-an

  1. (colloquial) verb suffix for the third-person future plural
Derived terms
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References

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R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “-an”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies