EnglishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • -ian (euphonic variant)
  • -n (when added to a word ending in a)

EtymologyEdit

From Middle English -an, regularly -ain, -ein, -en, from Old French -ain, -ein, or before i, -en (modern French -ain, -en, feminine -aine, -enne), from Latin -ānus (feminine -āna), which forms adjectives of belonging or origin from a noun, being -nus [cognate with Ancient Greek -νος (-nos)] preceded by a vowel, from Proto-Indo-European *-nós. Cognate with English -en. Compare with -in, -ine.

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. Of or pertaining to; an adjectival suffix appended to various words, often nouns, to make an adjective form. (Often added to words of Latin origin, but also used with words of other origins. When a word ends in a, -n is used instead.)
    Rome + ‎-an → ‎Roman
    Synonyms: -al, -ar, -ese, -esque, -ic, -id, -ish, -like, -oid, -ous, -y
  2. Appended to nouns to form an agent noun. (When males with a profession are distinguished from females, males are -an, females -(i)enne.)
    comedy + ‎-an → ‎comedian
    history + ‎-an → ‎historian

Derived termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

AnagramsEdit


AzerbaijaniEdit

SuffixEdit

preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / Ə / İ / Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -an -ən
postvocalic -yan -yən

-an

  1. Postconsonantal form of -ən after the vowels A / I / O / U.

Bikol CentralEdit

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. a place where a large quantity of the thing meant by the root is put, planted, or can be found
    basura (trash) + ‎-an → ‎basurahan (trash can)
  2. a place where the action expressed by the root is performed
    kawat (play) + ‎-an → ‎kawatan (playground)

ChuukeseEdit

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. (added to possessive nouns) his, hers, its

Related termsEdit


CimbrianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle High German -en, a merger of various terminations in Old High German reflecting different conjugational patterns, namely -an, -ōn, -en (-ien), and -nen, from Proto-Germanic *-aną, *-ōną, *-janą, *-āną, and *-naną. Cognate with German -en.

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. A suffix of all verbs in their infinitive form.

CzechEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-an m

  1. Forms nouns, including inhabitant names.

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit

  • -an in Slovník afixů užívaných v češtině, 2017

EsperantoEdit

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. Obsolete form of -am.

See alsoEdit


FinnishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From earlier *-han, *-hVn, from Proto-Finnic *-hen, *-sen (passive or reflexive suffix). Initial -ta- is from the causative suffix as seen in *-tadak.

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. (personal) Forms the impersonal indicative present forms of verbs that include back vowels (a, o or u or i or e with a, o or u — compare -än), appended to the infinitive.
    • No changes in verbs that end in one a.
    juosta + ‎-an → ‎juostaan
    • Verbs ending in -oa the beginning stem is followed by -ta- and then by this.
    sanoa, stem sano- + -ta- + -an -> sanotaan
    • Verbs ending in -aa or -ea the beginning stem is followed by -eta- and then by this.
    laittaa, stem lait- + -eta- + -an -> laitetaan
    paistaa, stem paist- + -eta- + -an -> paistetaan
    laskea, stem lask- + -eta- + -an -> lasketaan

Etymology 2Edit

See -Vn.

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. (case suffix) A suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.
    laiva boat (word includes back vowels, a — cf. -än) -> + -an = laivaan (on)to a/the boat; (in)to a/the boat

Etymology 3Edit

From earlier *-hVn, from Proto-Uralic *-sin, the third-person dual possessive for singular nouns.

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. (possessive) A variant for the third-person suffix -nsa, see the usage notes below.

Usage notesEdit

When the third-person suffix -nsa is appended to non-nominative noun forms that end in a single -a (those that are in singular and plural inessive, elative, adessive, ablative, essive and abessive and plural partitive and singular partitive ending with -ta), the S and A are very often omitted from the suffix and the last A of the case suffix preceding the remaining N is doubled — resulting in this -an. In standard Finnish, both the "full" form and the shortened form are acceptable (cf. -nsä). This same omission takes very often place also in the nominal verb forms used in shortened sentences (see the meanings of -nsa) and in the adverbs requiring this suffix:

Singular
(parti.) laitettansa -> laitettaan — koiraansa -> -"- (no changes)
(iness.) laitteessansa -> laitteessaan — koirassansa -> koirassaan
(elat.) laitteestansa -> laitteestaan — koirastansa -> koirastaan
(adess.) laitteellansa -> laitteellaan — koirallansa -> koirallaan
(ablat.) laitteeltansa -> laitteeltaan — koiraltansa -> koiraltaan
(ess.) laitteenansa -> laitteenaan — koiranansa -> koiranaan
(abess.) laitteettansa -> laitteettaan — koirattansa -> koirattaan
Plural
(partit.) laitteitansa -> laitteitaan — koiriansa -> koiriaan
(iness.) laitteissansa -> laitteissaan — koirissansa -> koirissaan
(elat.) laitteistansa -> laitteistaan — koiristansa -> koiristaan
(adess.) laitteillansa -> laitteillaan — koirillansa -> koirillaan
(ablat.) laitteiltansa -> laitteiltaan — koiriltansa -> koiriltaan
(ess.) laitteinansa -> laitteinaan — koirinansa -> koirinaan
(abess.) laitteittansa -> laitteittaan — koirittansa -> koirittaan

AnagramsEdit


HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. (deadjectival adverb suffix) Added to an adjective to create an adverb.
    pontos (accurate) + ‎-an → ‎pontosan (accurately)
  2. (denumeral and depronominal adverb suffix) Added to a numeral or a pronoun with this sense to create an adverb, expressing the number of people.
    hat (six)hatan (six people, six of us/you/them)
    Hatan mentünk moziba.Six of us went to the cinema.
    nyolc (eight)nyolcan (eight people, eight of us/you/them)
    Nyolcan vannak a szobában.There are eight people in the room.
    hány (how many)hányan (how many (of us/you/them))
    néhány (some, a few)néhányan (some (of us/you/them))
    sok (many)sokan (many (of us/you/them))
    Sokan vannak a meghívottak, de kevesen a választottak.For many are called, but few are chosen.
    millió (million)millióan (a million (of us/you/them))
Usage notesEdit
  • (deadjectival adverb-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -n is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -an is added to most back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -on is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -en is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant, as well as some front-vowel words ending in a vowel. Their original word-final vowel may be lost (e.g. könnyű) or supplemented with a consonant (e.g. , ).
  • (denumeral and depronominal adverb-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -n is added to some (very few) words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -an is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -en is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant, as well as some front-vowel words ending in a vowel. Their original word-final vowel may be lost (e.g. kettő).
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. (verb-forming suffix) Added to a stem ― often an onomatopoeia ― to form a verb expressing an instantaneous action.
    kattan (to click, to make one clicking sound)
    robban (to explode)
Usage notesEdit
  • Harmonic variants:
    -on is added to some back-vowel words
    -an is added to back-vowel words
    -en is added to front-vowel words
Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit


IndonesianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Malay -an, from Proto-Malayic *-an, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-an, from Proto-Austronesian *-an.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. Added to an noun
    1. Suffix for collectivity
      laut (sea) + ‎-an → ‎lautan (ocean)
    2. Suffix for place
      pangkal (origin) + ‎-an → ‎pangkalan (base)
    3. Suffix for value
      ribu (thousand) + ‎-an → ‎ribuan
    4. Suffix for measurement result; -s
      kilo (kilo) + ‎-an → ‎kiloan
    5. (colloquial) -s; Suffix for quantity (about value)
      ratus (hundred) + ‎-an → ‎ratusan (hundreds)
    6. -ly, specifying time intervals, having the sense of "occurring at such intervals".
      hari (day) + ‎-an → ‎harian (daily)
  2. Added to an verb to create an noun
    1. Suffix for object
      makan (to eat) + ‎-an → ‎makanan (food)
    2. Suffix for place
      kubur (to bury) + ‎-an → ‎kuburan (grave)
    3. Suffix for result
      didik (to educate) + ‎-an → ‎didikan
    4. Suffix for tool
      timbang (to weigh) + ‎-an → ‎timbangan (balance)
    5. Suffix for way or method
      pimpin (to lead) + ‎-an → ‎pimpinan
  3. Added to an adjective to create an noun
    1. Suffix for having property
      asin (salty) + ‎-an → ‎asinan (pickle)
    2. (colloquial) Suffix for intensity (quality or quantity)
      tinggi (high) + ‎-an → ‎tinggian (higher)
  4. Suffix for similarity

Derived termsEdit


MalayEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Malayic *-an, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-an, from Proto-Austronesian *-an.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-an (Jawi spelling -ان)

  1. Suffix for collectivity
  2. Suffix for similarity
  3. Suffix for object
  4. Suffix for place
  5. Suffix for instrument
    bangun (to wake up, to get up) + ‎-an → ‎bangunan (building)

ManxEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Irish -án, from Primitive Irish -ᚐᚌᚅᚔ (-agni).

SuffixEdit

-an m

  1. Alternative form of -ane

Derived termsEdit


OjibweEdit

FinalEdit

-an

  1. be in a state or condition

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. A suffix denoting the plural of an inanimate noun
  2. A suffix denoting the obviative form of an animate noun
  3. A suffix denoting the second-person singular imperative of a transitive inanimate verb (vti)

Usage notesEdit

As the suffix denoting the second-person singular imperative form, -an also acts as the class marker for unmarked (-am theme) transitive inanimate verbs (vti).

See alsoEdit


Old EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *-aną

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. (verbal suffix) used to form the infinitive of most verbs (exceptions are verbs like flēon (to flee))
    singanto sing
    nimanto take

Old NorseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Presumably from Proto-Germanic *-ōniz.

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. (deverbative suffix) Used to derive nouns from class 2 weak verbs.
    friða (to pacify) + ‎-an → ‎friðan (pacifying)
    sanna (to assert, prove) + ‎-an → ‎sannan (assertion, confirmation)
    synja (to deny) + ‎-an → ‎synjan (denial)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic *-anē

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. Forms adverbs with ablative direction.
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. strong accusative singular ending of adjectives

Old SaxonEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *-aną

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. (verbal suffix) used to form the infinitive of strong verbs (exceptions are a few verbs ending in -ian like biddian or liggian)
    drinkan (to drink)
    hwerƀan (to travel)

PhaluraEdit

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. Third person plural suffix

Alternative formsEdit

  • -íin (With e-ending verb stems)
  • -óon (With a-ending verb stems)
  • -en (Biori)
  • -éen (With e-ending verb stems in Biori)
  • -áan (With a-ending verb stems in Biori)

ReferencesEdit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[1], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

RomanianEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin -anus.

SuffixEdit

-an m or n (feminine singular -ană, masculine plural -ani, feminine and neuter plural -ane)

  1. Forms adjectives and nouns describing things and characteristics of a city, region, or country; -an
    Australia (Australia) + ‎-an → ‎australian (Australian)
    America (America) + ‎-an → ‎american (American)

Usage notesEdit

For the countries that end in -ia, the plural form of the suffix is -ieni when masculine and -iene when feminine/neuter.

Etymology 2Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

SuffixEdit

-an m or n (feminine singular -ană, masculine plural -ani, feminine and neuter plural -ane)

  1. Added to nouns and adjectives as an augmentative suffix.
    gras (fat) + ‎-an → ‎grăsan (fatso)
  2. Forms names of male animals.
    gâscă (goose) + ‎-an → ‎gâscan (gander)

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit


Scottish GaelicEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Irish -án, from Primitive Irish -ᚐᚌᚅᚔ (-agni).

PronunciationEdit

Usage notesEdit

The non-schwa clear vowel /a/ distinguishes this from the homograph plural suffix -an which is pronounced /ən/ i.e. with a schwa.

SuffixEdit

-an m

  1. A masculine suffix used to form nouns meaning a smaller form of something, often used for male given names.
    Cailean, Eòghan, Ailean, Beathan
    clàran, clachan, bioran

Etymology 2Edit

Cognate to Irish -anna, Manx -yn.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-an pl

  1. Used to form regular plurals of nouns.
    clach (stone) + ‎-an → ‎clachan
    damh (ox, stag) + ‎-an → ‎damhan
    leannan (lover, sweetheart) + ‎-an → ‎leannanan

Derived termsEdit


Serbo-CroatianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

SuffixEdit

-an (Cyrillic spelling -ан)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a (often negative) feature or endearment.

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Slavic *-ьnъ.

SuffixEdit

-an (Cyrillic spelling -ан)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create an adjective.

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit


SpanishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin -ant, the third-person plural present active indicative ending of first conjugation verbs.

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person plural (also used with ustedes) present indicative of -ar verbs.

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin -eant, Latin -ant, and Latin -iant, the third-person plural present active subjunctive endings of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively.

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person plural (also used with ustedes) present subjunctive of -er and -ir verbs.
  2. Suffix indicating the third-person plural imperative of -er and -ir verbs.

See alsoEdit


SwedishEdit

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. making a noun from a verb, similar to -ing and -ning, having -ningar as the plural.
    predika (to preach) + ‎-an → ‎predikan (a sermon)
  2. -an; making a noun, describing a person by belief or nationality
    Tibet + ‎-an → ‎tibetan
    lutheran
    vegetarian

Derived termsEdit

AnagramsEdit


TagalogEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. object trigger: to do something to a person or a thing
    Buksan mo ang pinto.(You) open the door
    (door is focused).)
  2. object trigger: to cause something to become; to make
    Binagalan ni Sue ang kotse.Sue slowed down the car.
    (The car is focused.)
  3. directional trigger: to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of
    Tinitingnan ko ang manwal.I'm looking at the manual.
    (The manual is focused).)
  4. benefactive trigger: to do something for
    Titirhan ko si Roy ng keyk.I'll leave some cake for Roy.
    (Roy is focused).)
  5. object trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
    Winawalis-walisan; ko ang sahig.I'm sweeping the floor a bit.
    (The floor is focused).)
  6. directional trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of, occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
    Tinutulung-tulungan ni Jessy si Patty.Jessy helped Patty a bit.
    (Patty is focused).)
  7. object trigger: to perform the action of the verb on something
    Huwag mong sulatan ang dokumento.Don't write anything on the document.

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. a place where a large quantity of the thing meant by the root is put, planted, or can be found
    aklat (book) + ‎-an → ‎aklatan (library)
    basura (trash) + ‎-an → ‎basurahan (trash can)
  2. a place where the action expressed by the root is performed
    kain (eat) + ‎-an → ‎kainan (place where people eat e.g. restaurant, café,...)
  3. a period in which the action expressed by the root is collectively performed
    ani (harvest) + ‎-an → ‎anihan (harvest time)
    pasok (entry, class, work) + ‎-an → ‎pasukan (school time, school year)
  4. a tool or an object that is used to measure what is meant by the root
    oras (time) + ‎-an → ‎orasan (clock, watch)
    timbang (weight) + ‎-an → ‎timbangan (weighing scale)
  5. reciprocal or joint performance of the action expressed by the root
    sayaw (dance) + ‎-an → ‎sayawan (dancing together)
    kanta (sing) + ‎-an → ‎kantahan (singing together)
  6. used to create a diminutive, pretensive, or imitative form of something (used with reduplication of root word)
    bahay (house) + ‎-an → ‎bahay-bahayan (toy house)
    Diyos (God) + ‎-an → ‎diyos-diyosan (false god)
    baril (gun) + ‎-an → ‎baril-barilan (toy gun)

Usage notesEdit

  • Normally, /h/ is inserted before -an when the root word ends with a vowel that is not followed by a glottal stop. In some cases, phoneme change can occur and /h/ becomes /n/.
    ganti + ‎-an → ‎gantihan
    talo + ‎-an → ‎talunan
  • Sometimes, the final vowel of the root word disappears when the suffix is added.
    sunod + ‎-an → ‎sundan
    takip + ‎-an → ‎takpan

Derived termsEdit


TurkishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Turkic *-gan.

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. Suffix creating participle.
    oturmak (to sit) + ‎-an → ‎oturan ((someone) who sit)
    kırılmak (to be broken) + ‎-an → ‎kırılan ((something) that broken/broken (thing))

VolapükEdit

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. Used to indicate someone who is or does something

Derived termsEdit


WelshEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. diminutive suffix, -let
    bwyell (axe) + ‎-an → ‎bwyellan (small axe, hatchet)
    gwraig (woman, wife) + ‎-an → ‎gwreigan (little woman, little wife)
    barf (beard) + ‎-an → ‎barfan (little beard, goatee, whiskers)
  2. person or object with characteristics of the root word
    mud (mute) + ‎-an → ‎mudan (mute person)
    llai (grey) + ‎-an → ‎lleian (nun)
    crwm (crooked, curved) + ‎-an → ‎cryman (sickle, pruning hook)
  3. used to form pet names
    Gwen + ‎-an → ‎Gwennan
    Dai + ‎-an → ‎Deian
    Elisabeth + ‎-an → ‎Bethan

Etymology 2Edit

Alternative formsEdit

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. verbnoun suffix

Etymology 3Edit

SuffixEdit

-an

  1. (colloquial) verb suffix for the third-person plural future

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “-an”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies