English edit

Suffix edit

-ja

  1. (colloquial, used only after a /d/ sound) You, ya.

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Anagrams edit

Emilian edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

-ja (personal, nominative case)

  1. (enclitic) Alternative form of a

Related terms edit

Estonian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Finnic *-ja, from Proto-Uralic *-ja. Cognate with Finnish -ja.

Suffix edit

-ja (genitive -ja, partitive -jat)

  1. -er; appended to verbal stems to form agent nouns, especially human ones
Declension edit
Declension of -ja (ÕS type 1/ohutu, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -ja -jad
accusative nom.
gen. -ja
genitive -jate
partitive -jat -jaid
illative -jasse -jatesse
-jaisse
inessive -jas -jates
-jais
elative -jast -jatest
-jaist
allative -jale -jatele
-jaile
adessive -jal -jatel
-jail
ablative -jalt -jatelt
-jailt
translative -jaks -jateks
-jaiks
terminative -jani -jateni
essive -jana -jatena
abessive -jata -jateta
comitative -jaga -jatega
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-ja

  1. derives various adverbs
    sala "secretly" → salaja "secretly"

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finnic *-ja (agent noun suffix), from Proto-Uralic *-ja (present participle ending).

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ja (front vowel harmony variant -jä, linguistic notation -jA)

  1. Forms agent nouns, especially human ones; -er
    katsoa (to watch) + ‎-ja → ‎katsoja (a watcher, spectator)
    tehdä (to do) + ‎-ja → ‎tekijä (a doer; a writer, author, playwright; a factor)
    syyttää (to blame) + ‎-ja → ‎syyttäjä (prosecutor)

Usage notes edit

Declension edit

The original verb affects the declension type of the derivation.

If the -ja ending is preceded by -i-, it is declined as type 12 (kulkija) (verbs of type 62 (voida) are an exception, however).

Inflection of -ja (Kotus type 12/kulkija, no gradation)
nominative -ja -jat
genitive -jan -joiden
-joitten
partitive -jaa -joita
illative -jaan -joihin
singular plural
nominative -ja -jat
accusative nom. -ja -jat
gen. -jan
genitive -jan -joiden
-joitten
-jainrare
partitive -jaa -joita
inessive -jassa -joissa
elative -jasta -joista
illative -jaan -joihin
adessive -jalla -joilla
ablative -jalta -joilta
allative -jalle -joille
essive -jana -joina
translative -jaksi -joiksi
abessive -jatta -joitta
instructive -join
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of -ja (Kotus type 12/kulkija, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -jani -jani
accusative nom. -jani -jani
gen. -jani
genitive -jani -joideni
-joitteni
-jainirare
partitive -jaani -joitani
inessive -jassani -joissani
elative -jastani -joistani
illative -jaani -joihini
adessive -jallani -joillani
ablative -jaltani -joiltani
allative -jalleni -joilleni
essive -janani -joinani
translative -jakseni -joikseni
abessive -jattani -joittani
instructive
comitative -joineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -jasi -jasi
accusative nom. -jasi -jasi
gen. -jasi
genitive -jasi -joidesi
-joittesi
-jaisirare
partitive -jaasi -joitasi
inessive -jassasi -joissasi
elative -jastasi -joistasi
illative -jaasi -joihisi
adessive -jallasi -joillasi
ablative -jaltasi -joiltasi
allative -jallesi -joillesi
essive -janasi -joinasi
translative -jaksesi -joiksesi
abessive -jattasi -joittasi
instructive
comitative -joinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -jamme -jamme
accusative nom. -jamme -jamme
gen. -jamme
genitive -jamme -joidemme
-joittemme
-jaimmerare
partitive -jaamme -joitamme
inessive -jassamme -joissamme
elative -jastamme -joistamme
illative -jaamme -joihimme
adessive -jallamme -joillamme
ablative -jaltamme -joiltamme
allative -jallemme -joillemme
essive -janamme -joinamme
translative -jaksemme -joiksemme
abessive -jattamme -joittamme
instructive
comitative -joinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -janne -janne
accusative nom. -janne -janne
gen. -janne
genitive -janne -joidenne
-joittenne
-jainnerare
partitive -jaanne -joitanne
inessive -jassanne -joissanne
elative -jastanne -joistanne
illative -jaanne -joihinne
adessive -jallanne -joillanne
ablative -jaltanne -joiltanne
allative -jallenne -joillenne
essive -jananne -joinanne
translative -jaksenne -joiksenne
abessive -jattanne -joittanne
instructive
comitative -joinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -jansa -jansa
accusative nom. -jansa -jansa
gen. -jansa
genitive -jansa -joidensa
-joittensa
-jainsarare
partitive -jaansa -joitaan
-joitansa
inessive -jassaan
-jassansa
-joissaan
-joissansa
elative -jastaan
-jastansa
-joistaan
-joistansa
illative -jaansa -joihinsa
adessive -jallaan
-jallansa
-joillaan
-joillansa
ablative -jaltaan
-jaltansa
-joiltaan
-joiltansa
allative -jalleen
-jallensa
-joilleen
-joillensa
essive -janaan
-janansa
-joinaan
-joinansa
translative -jakseen
-jaksensa
-joikseen
-joiksensa
abessive -jattaan
-jattansa
-joittaan
-joittansa
instructive
comitative -joineen
-joinensa

Otherwise, it is declined as type 10 (koira).

Inflection of -ja (Kotus type 10/koira, no gradation)
nominative -ja -jat
genitive -jan -jien
partitive -jaa -jia
illative -jaan -jiin
singular plural
nominative -ja -jat
accusative nom. -ja -jat
gen. -jan
genitive -jan -jien
-jainrare
partitive -jaa -jia
inessive -jassa -jissa
elative -jasta -jista
illative -jaan -jiin
adessive -jalla -jilla
ablative -jalta -jilta
allative -jalle -jille
essive -jana -jina
translative -jaksi -jiksi
abessive -jatta -jitta
instructive -jin
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of -ja (Kotus type 10/koira, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -jani -jani
accusative nom. -jani -jani
gen. -jani
genitive -jani -jieni
-jainirare
partitive -jaani -jiani
inessive -jassani -jissani
elative -jastani -jistani
illative -jaani -jiini
adessive -jallani -jillani
ablative -jaltani -jiltani
allative -jalleni -jilleni
essive -janani -jinani
translative -jakseni -jikseni
abessive -jattani -jittani
instructive
comitative -jineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -jasi -jasi
accusative nom. -jasi -jasi
gen. -jasi
genitive -jasi -jiesi
-jaisirare
partitive -jaasi -jiasi
inessive -jassasi -jissasi
elative -jastasi -jistasi
illative -jaasi -jiisi
adessive -jallasi -jillasi
ablative -jaltasi -jiltasi
allative -jallesi -jillesi
essive -janasi -jinasi
translative -jaksesi -jiksesi
abessive -jattasi -jittasi
instructive
comitative -jinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -jamme -jamme
accusative nom. -jamme -jamme
gen. -jamme
genitive -jamme -jiemme
-jaimmerare
partitive -jaamme -jiamme
inessive -jassamme -jissamme
elative -jastamme -jistamme
illative -jaamme -jiimme
adessive -jallamme -jillamme
ablative -jaltamme -jiltamme
allative -jallemme -jillemme
essive -janamme -jinamme
translative -jaksemme -jiksemme
abessive -jattamme -jittamme
instructive
comitative -jinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -janne -janne
accusative nom. -janne -janne
gen. -janne
genitive -janne -jienne
-jainnerare
partitive -jaanne -jianne
inessive -jassanne -jissanne
elative -jastanne -jistanne
illative -jaanne -jiinne
adessive -jallanne -jillanne
ablative -jaltanne -jiltanne
allative -jallenne -jillenne
essive -jananne -jinanne
translative -jaksenne -jiksenne
abessive -jattanne -jittanne
instructive
comitative -jinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -jansa -jansa
accusative nom. -jansa -jansa
gen. -jansa
genitive -jansa -jiensa
-jainsarare
partitive -jaansa -jiaan
-jiansa
inessive -jassaan
-jassansa
-jissaan
-jissansa
elative -jastaan
-jastansa
-jistaan
-jistansa
illative -jaansa -jiinsa
adessive -jallaan
-jallansa
-jillaan
-jillansa
ablative -jaltaan
-jaltansa
-jiltaan
-jiltansa
allative -jalleen
-jallensa
-jilleen
-jillensa
essive -janaan
-janansa
-jinaan
-jinansa
translative -jakseen
-jaksensa
-jikseen
-jiksensa
abessive -jattaan
-jattansa
-jittaan
-jittansa
instructive
comitative -jineen
-jinensa

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Garo edit

Affix edit

-ja

  1. Used on a verb before the case marker to indicate negation.

Gothic edit

Romanization edit

-ja

  1. Romanization of -𐌾𐌰

Hungarian edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ja

  1. Possessive (and genitive) suffix: [from 1055]
    1. (with no possessor or with the 3rd‑person pronoun as possessor, usually construed with the definite article) hisherits …
      ház(a) háza, az ő háza (his/her/its house)élet(az) élete, az ő élete (his/her/its life)barát(a) barátja (his/her/its friend)kapu(a) kapuja (his/her/its gate)palota(a) palotája (his/her/its palace)kert(a) kertje (his/her/its garden)betű(a) betűje (his/her/its letter)vese(a) veséje (his/her/its kidney)
    2. (with a singular possessor)-'s, of … (third-person singular, single possession)
      Anna háza (Anna’s house), a felkelő nap háza (the house of the rising sun)Anna élete (Anna’s life), a város élete (the life of the city)a király palotája (the king’s palace)a ház kapuja (the gate of the house)Anna kertje (Anna’s garden), a tulipán kertje (the garden of the tulip)
    3. (with a plural possessor)-s’, of-s (third-person plural, single possession)
      a szüleim háza (my parents’ house), a trópusi növények háza ([the] house of [the] tropical plants, literally the tropical plants’ house)a szüleim élete (my parents’ lives, literally my parents’ life), a könyvek élete ([the] lives of [the] books, literally the books’ life)az uralkodók palotája (the rulers’ palace)a szüleim kertje (my parents’ garden), Az elágazó ösvények kertje (The Garden of Forking Paths)
    4. (with instantaneous time expressions) … ago (referring to a preceding point in time considered as an instant)
      Egy évszázada / két éve / egy órája / sok/hosszú ideje ment el.S/he left one century / two years / one hour / a long time ago.
      Synonym: -val/-vel ezelőtt, e.g. egy évszázaddal, két évvel ezelőtt
    5. (with durative time expressions) for … (referring to some duration that precedes the point of time in question)
      Egy évszázada / két éve / egy órája / sok/hosszú ideje várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for a century / two years / an hour / a long time.
    6. (mostly with quantities, often following -ik) of …, out of(partitive sense)
      Synonym: (only with countable quantities) közül
      jó (jav-) (the greater/better part)a java még hátravan (the best/bulk is yet to come, literally its best/bulk is…)
      legnagyobbik (the biggest one)a bikák legnagyobbika (the biggest [one] of the bulls, synonymous with a legnagyobb bika)

Usage notes edit

  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -e is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ja is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-; final -o changes to -ó-.
    -je is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -e changes to -é-; final changes to -ő-.
    • This suffix (in all forms) is normally used for the third-person singular possessive (single possession) but, after an explicit plural possessor, it also expresses the third-person plural possessive (single possession), e.g. “the children’s ball” (a gyerekek labdája). If the possessor is implicit (not named, only marked by a suffix), the plural possessive suffix must be used, e.g. “their ball” (a labdájuk, see -juk and its variants).

Declension edit

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative -ja
accusative -ját
dative -jának
instrumental -jával
causal-final -jáért
translative -jává
terminative -jáig
essive-formal -jaként
essive-modal -jául
inessive -jában
superessive -ján
adessive -jánál
illative -jába
sublative -jára
allative -jához
elative -jából
delative -járól
ablative -jától
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-jáé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-jáéi

Suffix edit

-ja

  1. (personal suffix) Forms the definite third-person singular present tense of back-vowel verbs (with identical or different assimilation rules depending on the ending of the stem—see the tables below):
    1. in indicative mood
      tud (to know) + ‎-ja → ‎tudja (he/she knows)
      Tudja, hogy mit akar.He/she knows what he/she wants.
      tartalmaz (to contain) + ‎-ja → ‎tartalmazza (it contains [that])
      tart (to hold, keep) + ‎-ja → ‎tartja ([formal] you are holding/keeping [him/her/it] or s/he is holding/keeping [him/her/it])
    2. in subjunctive (imperative) mood
      megtud (to find out)tudja meg! ([formal] Find it out! or Let him/her find it out!)
      tartalmaz (to contain) + ‎-ja → ‎tartalmazza! (it should contain [that] or let it contain [that])
      tart (to hold, keep) + ‎-ja → ‎tartsa! ([formal] hold/keep him/her/it! or s/he should hold/keep him/her/it! or let him/her hold/keep him/her/it!)

Usage notes edit

  • (personal suffix) The j assimilates to the final s, sz, z, dz. See harmonic variants in the tables below.

See also edit

Ingrian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finnic *-ja. Cognates include Finnish -ja and Estonian -ja.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ja (front vowel variant -jä)

  1. Used to form agent nouns from verbs: -er
    kirjuttaa (to write) + ‎-ja → ‎kirjuttaja (writer)

Usage notes edit

Declension edit

Declension of -Vja (type 3/koira, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -Vja -Vjat
genitive -Vjan -Vjiin
partitive -Vjaa -Vjia
illative -Vjaa -Vjii
inessive -Vjas -Vjis
elative -Vjast -Vjist
allative -Vjalle -Vjille
adessive -Vjal -Vjil
ablative -Vjalt -Vjilt
translative -Vjaks -Vjiks
essive -Vjanna, -Vjaan -Vjinna, -Vjiin
exessive1) -Vjant -Vjint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.

After the vowel -i-:

Declension of -ija (type 3/kana, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -ija -ijat
genitive -ijan -ijoin
partitive -ijaa -ijoja
illative -ijaa -ijoihe
inessive -ijaas -ijois
elative -ijast -ijoist
allative -ijalle -ijoille
adessive -ijaal -ijoil
ablative -ijalt -ijoilt
translative -ijaks -ijoiks
essive -ijanna, -ijaan -ijoinna, -ijoin
exessive1) -ijant -ijoint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.

Derived terms edit

Maltese edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

See the lemma.

Suffix edit

-ja

  1. Alternative form of -a (feminine, plural, or singulative ending), used with stems ending in -i, -j.

Etymology 2 edit

From Arabicيَ(ya), alternative form of ⁧ي().

Suffix edit

-ja

  1. Alternative form of -i (1st-person singular non-verbal pronominal suffix), used with stems ending in vowels or diphthongs.

Murui Huitoto edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ja

  1. Alternative form of -a

References edit

  • Katarzyna Izabela Wojtylak (2017) A grammar of Murui (Bue): a Witotoan language of Northwest Amazonia.[1], Townsville: James Cook University press (PhD thesis), page 134

Serbo-Croatian edit

Suffix edit

-ja (Cyrillic spelling -ја)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a profession, performer or a feature, usually negative.

See also edit

Ye'kwana edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Suffix edit

-ja

  1. forms a tag question, requesting confirmation: right?
Usage notes edit

This morpheme is properly a clitic rather than a suffix.

Etymology 2 edit

Suffix edit

-ja

  1. expresses complaint about the term it attaches to

References edit

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011), “⸗ja”, in Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana, Lyon
  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011), “-ja”, in Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana, Lyon