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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative formsEdit


Connected with Old Armenian հաստ (hast, firm, steady, standing still, tough; thick, dense, broad), possibly also Sanskrit पस्त्य n (pastyá, stall, stable ← stable habitation), पस्त्या f (pastyā́, homestead, dwelling, household), and usually derived from Proto-Indo-European *pastV- (solid, stable). Kroonen separates the Sanskrit and reconstructs the Proto-Indo-European root for Armenian and Germanic as *pHst-, according to him from earlier *ph₂ǵ-sth₂-, a compound of *peh₂ǵ- (to become firm) (compare Ancient Greek πήγνυμι (pḗgnumi, to fasten, fix, make solid)) and *steh₂- (to stand).

However, according to Martirosyan we are hardly dealing with a Proto-Indo-European word. This is rather a substrate word shared by Armenian, Germanic, possibly also Indo-Aryan. See հաստ (hast) for more on this.




  1. fixed, firm, secure


Derived termsEdit



  • Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997) Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 204b
  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2010), “hast”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 390
  • Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*fastu-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 138