See also: Fast, FAST, fást, and fäst

English edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English fast, fest, from Old English fæst (firm, secure), from Proto-West Germanic *fast, from Proto-Germanic *fastuz; see it for cognates and further etymology.

The development of “rapid” from an original sense of “secure” apparently happened first in the adverb and then transferred to the adjective; compare hard in expressions like “to run hard”. The original sense of “secure, firm” is now slightly archaic, but retained in the related fasten (make secure). Also compare close meaning change from Latin rapiō (to snatch) to Latin rapidus (rapid, quick), from Irish sciob (to snatch) to Irish sciobtha (quick).

Adjective edit

fast (comparative faster, superlative fastest)

  1. (dated) Firmly or securely fixed in place; stable. [from 9th c.]
    That rope is dangerously loose. Make it fast!
    Synonyms: firm, immobile, secure, stable, stuck, tight
    Antonym: loose
    Hyponyms: bedfast, chairfast, colorfast, fail-fast, lightfast, shamefast, soothfast, steadfast
  2. Firm against attack; fortified by nature or art; impregnable; strong.
    • 1596 (date written; published 1633), Edmund Spenser, A Vewe of the Present State of Irelande [], Dublin: [] Societie of Stationers, [], →OCLC; republished as A View of the State of Ireland [] (Ancient Irish Histories), Dublin: [] Society of Stationers, [] Hibernia Press, [] [b]y John Morrison, 1809, →OCLC:
      out-lawes [] lurking in woods and fast places
    Synonyms: fortified, impenetrable
    Antonyms: penetrable, weak
  3. (of people) Steadfast, with unwavering feeling. (Now mostly in set phrases like fast friend(s).) [from 10th c.]
    • 1933, Will Hudson, Irving Mills, Eddy DeLange, Moonglow:
      I still hear you sayin', "Dear one, hold me fast"
  4. Moving with great speed, or capable of doing so; swift, rapid. [from 14th c.]
    I am going to buy a fast car.
    Synonyms: quick, rapid, speedy
    1. (nuclear physics, of a neutron) Having a kinetic energy between 1 million and 20 million electron volts; often used to describe the energy state of free neutrons at the moment of their release by a nuclear fission or nuclear fusion reaction (i.e., before the neutrons have been slowed down by anything).
      Plutonium-240 has a much higher fission cross-section for fast neutrons than for thermal neutrons.
  5. Of a place, characterised by business, hustle and bustle, etc.
    • 1968, Carl Ruhen, The Key Club, Sydney: Scripts, page 15:
      Sydney is a fast city, and the pace is becoming increasingly more frantic.
  6. Causing unusual rapidity of play or action.
    a fast racket, or tennis court
    a fast track
    a fast billiard table
    a fast dance floor
  7. (computing, of a piece of hardware) Able to transfer data in a short period of time.
  8. Deep or sound (of sleep); fast asleep (of people). [16th–19th c.]
    • c. 1606 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Macbeth”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act V, scene i]:
      Since his majesty went into the field, I have seen her rise from her bed, throw her nightgown upon her, unlock her closet, take forth paper, fold it, write upon’t, read it, afterwards seal it, and again return to bed; yet all this while in a most fast sleep.
    Synonyms: deep, sound
    Antonym: light
  9. (of dyes or colours) Not running or fading when subjected to detrimental conditions such as wetness or intense light; permanent. [from 17th c.]
    All the washing has come out pink. That red tee-shirt was not fast.
    Synonym: colour-fast
  10. (obsolete) Tenacious; retentive.
  11. (dated) Having an extravagant lifestyle or immoral habits. [from 18th c.]
    a fast woman
    • 1852, John Swaby, Physiology of the Opera, page 74:
      [] we remember once hearing a fast man suggest that they were evidently "nobs who had overdrawn the badger by driving fast cattle, and going it high" — the exact signification of which words we did not understand []
    • 1867, George W. Bungay, “Temperance and its Champions”, in The Herald of Health and Journal of Physical Culture[1], volume I, page 277:
      Had Senator Wilson won the unenviable reputation of being a fast man—a lover of wine, or had he shown himself to the public in a state of inebriety, unable to stand erect in Fanueil Hall for instance, leaning upon the desk to “maintain the center of gravity,” and uttering words that fell sprawling in “muddy obscurity” from lips redolent of rum, rendering it necessary for a prompter and an interpreter to sculpture his speech into symmetry for the public ear and the public press, he would have been pelted from his high office with the indignant ballots of his constituents.
    • 1979, Doug Fieger, Good Girls Don't:
      You're alone with her at last / And you're waiting 'til you think the time is right / Cause you've heard she's pretty fast / And you're hoping that she'll give you some tonight.
  12. Ahead of the correct time or schedule. [from 19th c.]
    There must be something wrong with the hall clock. It is always fast.
    Synonyms: ahead, (as in “the clock is gaining x minutes per hour/day”) gain
    Antonyms: behind, slow
  13. (of photographic film) More sensitive to light than average. [from 20th c.]
Usage notes edit

In the context of nuclear reactors or weaponry, fission-spectrum neutrons (neutrons with the spectrum of energies produced by nuclear fission) are frequently referred to as fast neutrons, even though the majority of fission-spectrum neutrons have energies below the 1-million-electron-volt cutoff.

Synonyms edit
Antonyms edit
  • (occurring or happening within a short time): slow
Derived terms edit
Translations edit

Adverb edit

fast (comparative faster, superlative fastest)

  1. In a firm or secure manner, securely; in such a way as not to be moved; safe, sound [from 10th c.].
    Synonyms: firmly, securely, tightly
    Antonym: loosely
    Hold this rope as fast as you can.
    • c. 1596–1598 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Merchant of Venice”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act II, scene v]:
      Shylock:
      [] Do as I bid you; shut doors after you:
      Fast bind, fast find;
      A proverb never stale in thrifty mind.
    • 1726 October 28, [Jonathan Swift], “The Author Gives Some Account of Himself and Family, His First Inducements to Travel. []”, in Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. [] [Gulliver’s Travels], volume I, London: [] Benj[amin] Motte, [], →OCLC, part I (A Voyage to Lilliput), page 20:
      Nine hundred of the ſtrongeſt Men were employed to draw up theſe Cords by many Pulleys faſtned on the Poles, and thus, in leſs than three Hours, I was raiſed and flung into the Engine, and there tyed faſt.
  2. (of sleeping) Deeply or soundly [from 13th c.].
    Synonym: deeply
    Antonym: lightly
    He is fast asleep.
  3. Immediately following in place or time; close, very near [from 13th c.].
    The horsemen came fast on our heels.
    Fast by the sturdy batsman the ball unheeded sped. / That ain't my style, said Casey. Strike one, the umpire said.
  4. Quickly, with great speed; within a short time [from 13th c.].
    Synonyms: quickly, rapidly, speedily, swiftly
    Antonym: slowly
    Do it as fast as you can.
    • 2013 August 17, “Pennies streaming from heaven”, in The Economist, volume 408, number 8849:
      Faster than a speeding bit, the internet upended media and entertainment companies. Piracy soared, and sales of albums and films slid. Newspapers lost advertising and readers to websites. Stores selling books, CDs and DVDs went bust. Doomsayers predicted that consumers and advertisers would abandon pay-television en masse in favour of online alternatives.
  5. Ahead of the correct time or schedule.
    Synonym: ahead
    Antonym: behind
    I think my watch is running fast.
Translations edit

Noun edit

fast (plural fasts)

  1. (Britain, rail transport) A train that calls at only some stations it passes between its origin and destination, typically just the principal stations
    Synonyms: express, express train, fast train
    Antonyms: local, slow train, stopper
Translations edit

Interjection edit

fast

  1. (archery) Short for "stand fast", a warning not to pass between the arrow and the target
    Antonym: loose
Translations edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle English fasten, from Old English fæstan (verb), Old English fæsten (noun) from Proto-Germanic *fastāną (fast), from the same root as Proto-Germanic *fastijaną (fasten), derived from *fastuz, and thereby related to Etymology 1. The religious sense is presumably introduced in the Gothic church, from Gothic 𐍆𐌰𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌽 (fastan, hold fast (viz. to the rule of abstinence)). This semantic development is unique to Gothic, the term glosses Greek νηστεύω (nēsteúō), Latin ieiuno which do not have similar connotations of "holding fast". The feminine noun Old High German fasta likely existed in the 8th century (shift to neuter Old High German fasten from the 9th century, whence modern German Fasten). The Old English noun originally had the sense "fortress, enclosure" and takes the religious sense only in late Old English, perhaps influenced by Old Norse fasta. The use for reduced nutrition intake for medical reasons or for weight reduction develops by the mid-1970s, back-formed from the use of the verbal noun fasting in this sense (1960s).

Verb edit

fast (third-person singular simple present fasts, present participle fasting, simple past and past participle fasted)

  1. (intransitive) To practice religious abstinence, especially from food.
  2. (intransitive) To reduce or limit one's nutrition intake for medical or health reasons, to diet.
    • 1977, Suza Norton, “To get the most benefit from fasting use a body-building diet”, in Yoga Journal, Jul-Aug 1977, p. 40:
      The ideal would be to fast in a situation where you are not tempted by food
    • 1983, Experimental Lung Research, volumes 5-6, Informa healthcare, page 134:
      After the equilibration period, the rats designated for deprivation studies were made to fast for 24, 48, 72, or 96 hr according to experimental design.
  3. (transitive) (academic) To cause a person or animal to abstain, especially from eating.
    • Walker et al. (2007)
      At 11 weeks of age, all mice were fasted overnight and underwent gallbladder ultrasonography to determine ejection fraction.
    • Semick et al. (2018)
      Kittens, when fasted overnight, were not hypoglycemic (<60 mg/dl).
Translations edit

Noun edit

fast (plural fasts)

  1. The act or practice of fasting, religious abstinence from food
    • 1677 George Fox, The Hypocrites Fast and Feast Not God's Holy Day, p. 8 (paraphrasing Matthew 6:16-18).
      And is it not the Command of Christ, that in their Fast they should not appear unto men to fast?
    • 1878, Joseph Bingham, The Antiquities of the Christian Church, volume 2, page 1182:
      anciently a change of diet was not reckoned a fast; but it consisted in a perfect abstinence from all sustenance for the whole day till evening.
  2. One of the fasting periods in the liturgical year
    • 1662 Peter Gunning, The Holy Fast of Lent Defended Against All Its Prophaners: Or, a Discourse, Shewing that Lent-Fast was First Taught the World by the Apostles (1677 [1662]), p. 13 (translation of the Paschal Epistle of Theophilus of Alexandria).
      And so may we enter the Fasts at hand, beginning Lent the 30th. day of the Month Mechir
Derived terms edit
Translations edit

References edit

Anagrams edit

Catalan edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Latin fāstus (pride, arrogance).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

fast m (plural fasts or fastos)

  1. pomp
  2. luxury

Related terms edit

Further reading edit

Danish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Norse fastr, from Proto-Germanic *fastuz; see it for cognates and further etymology.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

fast

  1. firm
  2. solid
  3. tight
  4. fixed
  5. permanent
  6. regular
Inflection edit
Inflection of fast
Positive Comparative Superlative
Indefinte common singular fast 2
Indefinite neuter singular fast 2
Plural faste 2
Definite attributive1 faste
1) When an adjective is applied predicatively to something definite, the corresponding "indefinite" form is used.
2) The "indefinite" superlatives may not be used attributively.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From German fast (almost, nearly).

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

fast

  1. (dated) almost, nearly
    Synonyms: næsten, omtrent

Etymology 3 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /faːst/, [fæːˀsd̥]

Verb edit

fast

  1. imperative of faste

German edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old High German fasto, compare fest. Cognate with English adverb fast. Compare Dutch vast.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

fast

  1. almost; nearly
    Synonyms: beinahe, knapp, nahezu
    Antonym: ganz
    Fast 60 Spielfilme sind zu sehen.There are almost 60 feature films to see.
  2. (in a negative clause) hardly
    Synonym: kaum
  3. (obsolete) extremely, very much
    • 1545, Martin Luther et al., “Biblia”, in Gen 12:14, Hans Lufft:
      ALs nu Abram in Egypten kam / sahen die Egypter das Weib / das sie fast schön war.
      Now as Abram came into Egypt, the Egyptians saw the woman, that she was extremely beautiful.

Etymology 2 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

fast

  1. inflection of fasen:
    1. second/third-person singular present
    2. second-person plural present
    3. plural imperative

Further reading edit

Icelandic edit

Adverb edit

fast

  1. strongly, with force
    að slá einhvern fastto strike someone with force

See also edit

Middle English edit

Etymology edit

From Old English fæst.

Adverb edit

fast

  1. fast (quickly)

Descendants edit

  • English: fast
  • Irish: feiste

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Norse fastr, from Proto-Germanic *fastuz; see it for cognates and further etymology.

Adjective edit

fast (neuter singular fast, definite singular and plural faste)

  1. solid, steady, firm, fixed, permanent
    fast telefonfixed phone
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Verb edit

fast

  1. imperative of faste

References edit

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse fastr, from Proto-Germanic *fastuz; see it for cognates and further etymology. Akin to English fast.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

fast (indefinite singular fast, definite singular and plural faste, comparative fastare, indefinite superlative fastast, definite superlative fastaste)

  1. solid, steady, firm, fixed, permanent, stuck

Derived terms edit

References edit

Old Saxon edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-West Germanic *fastī, from Proto-Germanic *fastuz; see it for cognates and further etymology.

Adjective edit

fast

  1. solid, firm

Declension edit


Romanian edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from French faste.

Noun edit

fast n (uncountable)

  1. splendour, pomp

Declension edit

Swedish edit

Etymology edit

From Old Swedish faster, from Old Norse fastr, from Proto-Germanic *fastuz; see it for cognates and further etymology.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

fast

  1. caught (unable to move freely), captured
    Bankrånaren är nu fast.
    The bank robber has now been caught (by the police).
  2. fixed, fastened, unmoving
    Ge mig en fast punkt, och jag skall flytta världen.
    Give me one fixed spot, and I'll move the world.
  3. firm, solid (as opposed to liquid)
    Den är för vattnig. Jag önskar att den hade en fastare konsistens.
    It's too watery. I wish it had a firmer consistency.
    fasta tillståndets fysik
    solid state physics
  4. although (short form of fastän)
    Det gick bra, fast de inte hade övat i förväg.
    It went well, although they hadn't practiced in advance.

Declension edit

Inflection of fast
Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular fast fastare fastast
Neuter singular fast fastare fastast
Plural fasta fastare fastast
Masculine plural3 faste fastare fastast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 faste fastare fastaste
All fasta fastare fastaste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in the predicative.
3) Dated or archaic

Related terms edit

Adverb edit

fast

  1. fixed, firmly, steadily (synonymous to the adjective)
    att sitta fastto be stuck
    att sätta fastto attach
  2. (obsolete) almost, nearly
    och hade bedrifvit underslef af fast otrolig omfattningand had committed embezzlement of an almost unbelievable extent.

Conjunction edit

fast

  1. although, even though
    Farsan löper också bra, fast inte lika fort.Dad also runs well, although not as fast.

Related terms edit

Anagrams edit