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Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/úd

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Contents

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

AdverbEdit

*úd[1][2]

  1. out, outward

Derived termsEdit

  • *úd-s (prep.)[1] (< genitive[3])
    • Celtic: *uss- (prep.)[4]
    • Germanic: *uz (out (of), prep.)[3] (see there for further descendants)
  • *úd-s-kʷe (above, prep.)[1]
    • Indo-Iranian: *utˢčáH (above, upwards, adverb) (< *úds-kʷeh₁ (instr.)) (see there for further descendants)
    • Italic: *ūskʷe[4] (< Lachmann's Law < *uskʷe)
      • Latin: ūsque (all the way, up to, adverb) (see there for further descendants)
  • *úd-ter-o-s (higher, outer, contrastive)[5] (see there for further descendants)
  • *ud-tm̥m-ó-s (highest, most outer, superl.)[1][6]
  • *úd-er-o-s (abdomen, stomach)[7][8] (deadjectival of original superlative, see there for further descendants)

DescendantsEdit

  • Balto-Slavic: *ū́
  • Celtic: *ud- (pref.)
  • Germanic: *ūt (out, outward, adverb)[10] (lengthened due to monosyllabicity[10]) (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic: *u
    • Ancient Greek: ὑ- (hu-, pref.), (hu, prep..)
  • Indo-Iranian: *úd-[11] (see there for further descendants)

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Pokorny, Julius (1959), “ū̆d-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 1103-1104
  2. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006), “*ud-”, in The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 547
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*uz”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 562
  4. 4.0 4.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “ū̆sque”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 646: “*ud-skʷe”
  5. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006), “*udˢtero-”, in The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 517
  6. ^ Mayrhofer, Manfred (1992–2001), “úttara-”, in Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan] (in German), Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 213
  7. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006), “*udero-”, in The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 517
  8. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959), “udero-, u̯ēdero-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume III, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 3
  9. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 553
  10. 10.0 10.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*ūt”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 562
  11. ^ Mayrhofer, Manfred (1992–2001), “úd”, in Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan] (in German), Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 214