Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/-yeti

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

SuffixEdit

*(é)-yeti

  1. Creates transitive imperfective verbs from roots.

Usage notesEdit

In many daughter languages, this suffix came to be affixed to stems as well. It was used frequently to convert originally athematic inflections into thematic inflections.

InflectionEdit

Imperfective, thematic
3rd singular *(é)-yeti
3rd plural *(é)-yonti
Active voice Present indicative Past indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
1st singular *(é)-yoh₂ *(é)-yom *(é)-yōh₂ *(é)-yoyh₁m̥
2nd singular *(é)-yesi *(é)-yes *(é)-ye *(é)-yēsi *(é)-yoys
3rd singular *(é)-yeti *(é)-yet *(é)-yetu *(é)-yēti *(é)-yoyt
1st dual *(é)-yowos *(é)-yowe *(é)-yōwos *(é)-yoywe
2nd dual *(é)-yetes *(é)-yetom *(é)-yetom *(é)-yētes *(é)-yoytom
3rd dual *(é)-yetes *(é)-yetām *(é)-yetām *(é)-yētes *(é)-yoytām
1st plural *(é)-yomos *(é)-yome *(é)-yōmos *(é)-yoyme
2nd plural *(é)-yete *(é)-yete *(é)-yete *(é)-yēte *(é)-yoyte
3rd plural *(é)-yonti *(é)-yont *(é)-yontu *(é)-yōnti *(é)-yoyh₁n̥t
Participle *(é)-yonts
Middle voice Present indicative Past indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
1st singular *(é)-yoh₂er *(é)-yoh₂e *(é)-yōh₂er *(é)-yoyh₂e
2nd singular *(é)-yeth₂er *(é)-yeth₂e *(é)-yeso *(é)-yēth₂er *(é)-yoyth₂e
3rd singular *(é)-yetor *(é)-yeto *? *(é)-yētor *(é)-yoyto, *(é)-yoyh₁o
1st dual *(é)-yowosdʰh₂ *(é)-yowedʰh₂ *(é)-yōwosdʰh₂ *(é)-yoywedʰh₂
2nd dual *? *? *? *? *?
3rd dual *? *? *? *? *?
1st plural *(é)-yomosdʰh₂ *(é)-yomedʰh₂ *(é)-yōmosdʰh₂ *(é)-yoymedʰh₂
2nd plural *(é)-yedʰh₂we *(é)-yedʰh₂we *(é)-yedʰh₂we *(é)-yēdʰh₂we *(é)-yoydʰh₂we
3rd plural *(é)-yoror, *(é)-yontor *(é)-yoro, *(é)-yonto *? *(é)-yōror, *(é)-yōntor *(é)-yoyro, *(é)-yoyh₁n̥to
Participle *(é)-yomnos

Derived termsEdit


DescendantsEdit

  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: -եմ (-em) (partially)
  • Germanic: *-(i)ja- (j-presents, class 1 weak verbs)
  • Hellenic: *-yō
    • Ancient Greek: -έω (-éō) (partially, when added to roots, when compounded with *-e- (noun thematic vowel), ie. *-eyé-, when added to s-stem nouns, ie. *-esyé-)
    • Ancient Greek: -όω (-óō) (aboriginal ἀρόω (aróō) and new denominative verbs to o-stem nouns)
    • Ancient Greek: -πτω (-ptō) (< *-pye-, *-pʰye-)
    • Ancient Greek: -σσω (-ssō), -ττω (-ttō) (< *-kye-, *-kʰye-, *-kʷye-, *-kʷʰye-, *-tye-, *-tʰye-, *-gye-)
    • Ancient Greek: -ζω (-zō) (< *-gye-, *-gʷye-, *-dye-)
    • Ancient Greek: -λλω (-llō) (< *-lye-)
    • Ancient Greek: -ιCω (-iCō) (< *-Cye-)
  • Italic:
  • Indo-Iranian: *-yatay

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  • Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN