Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/dyḗws

This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European

edit
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology

edit

From earlier *dyéws,[1] from *dyew- (sky, heaven) +‎ *-s (root nominal suffix).

Noun

edit

*dyḗws (oblique stem diw-)

  1. sky, heaven
  2. sky god, Dyeus

Inflection

edit
Athematic, hysterokinetic
singular
nominative *dyḗws
genitive *diwés
singular dual plural
nominative *dyḗws *dyéwh₁(e) *dyéwes
vocative *dyéw *dyéwh₁(e) *dyéwes
accusative *dyḗm *dyéwh₁(e) *dyéwm̥s
genitive *diwés *? *diwóHom
ablative *diwés *? *diwmós
dative *diwéy *? *diwmós
locative *dyéw, *dyéwi *? *diwsú
instrumental *diwéh₁ *? *diwmís

Notes:

  • Acc. sg. dyḗm (< *dyéw-m per Stang's law).
  • Nom. sg. dyḗws (with ē from acc. case).
  • For the name of the deity, *ph₂tḗr (father) is often added as an apposition, which inflects as well.

Compare with the attested Sanskrit forms

Usage notes

edit

Some authors gloss this word as “day sky” or “day-sky god”, assuming (based on Indo-European mythology) that Proto-Indo-European distinguished terms for the night sky and its associated deity.[2]

Descendants

edit
  • Proto-Anatolian:
  • Proto-Armenian: *tiw-
  • Proto-Hellenic: *Dzéus (sky god, Zeus) (see there for further descendants)
  • Albanian: Zojz
  • Messapic: Zis
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *dyā́wš (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *djous (see there for further descendants)
  • Lusitanian:
    • ? Latin: *Reus
      • Latin: Reo (Lusitanian theonym, dative singular)
  • English: Dyeus

Derived terms

edit

Further reading

edit
  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2019) “Traces of Indo-European ‘Father Sky, God’ in Armenian”, in U. Bläsing, J. Dum-Tragut, T.M. van Lint, editors, Armenian, Hittite, and Indo-European Studies: A Commemoration Volume for Jos J.S. Weitenberg (Hebrew University Armenian Studies; 15), Leuven: Peeters, pages 195–196

References

edit
  1. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 337
  2. ^ Calin, Didier (2017) “sky (/skies)”, in Dictionary of Indo-European Poetic and Religious Themes (Linguistique; 3), Les Cent Chemins, →ISBN, page 205:DAY SKY GOD — as opposed to the Night Sky God; cf. s.v. “Night Sky god”, pp. 165–167
  3. ^ Demiraj, B. (1997) Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: []] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7)‎[1] (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, pages 431-2