Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kwep-

This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Alternative reconstructions edit

Reconstruction edit

Most likely innovated root, which appeared in Late Proto-Indo-European. Beekes[5] does not suggest Indo-European origin for the Greek data. Rix (in LIV) reconstructs two or three distinct roots: *keu̯p-, *ku̯eh₁p-, and possibly *ku̯ep-. The Balto-Slavic data is inconclusive - Derksen[2] distinguishes at least two different roots *kwep- (to smell, aroma) and *kʷh₂wep- (to steam, to burn). Proto-Slavic *koprъ (aromatic one) and *kopriva (burning, scalding one) mix these two senses in the same stem, though.

The root also resembles the wanderwort Ancient Greek Κύπρος (Kúpros, Cyprus),[6] Latin cuprum (copper), which is of Middle Eastern origin.

Root edit

*kwep- or *kʷap-?[7]

  1. to smoke, to steam
  2. to boil
  3. aroma, strong odor

Alternative forms edit

Derived terms edit

  • *kwḗp-ti ~ *kwép-n̥ti (root athematic Narten present)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *kwḗptei[8]
      • Latvian: kvêpt (to smell) (partially, sta-present)
      • Lithuanian: kvė̃pti (to smell)
  • *kup-/*kūp-eh₁(-yé)-ti (secondary essive)
  • *kub-eh₂(-yé)-ti (factive)
    • Proto-Germanic: *hupōną
      • Proto-West Germanic: *hopōn (see there for further descendants)
  • *kwob-éye-ti (causative)
    • Proto-Germanic: *hwapjaną (to suffocate)[3] (see there for further descendants)
  • >? *kʷap-nó-s
    • Proto-Hellenic: *kapnós
      • Ancient Greek: καπνός (kapnós, smoke, steam)[5] (possibly, but not very likely)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *kapnás
      • Proto-Slavic: *kopněti (to melt, to long for) (denominal stative present) (see there for further descendants)
  • >? *kʷap-ró-s
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *kaprás
      • Proto-Slavic: *koprъ (dill) (see there for further descendants)
        • Proto-Slavic: *kopriva (nettle) (see there for further descendants)
        • Proto-Slavic: *koprina (silk)
  • >? *kʷap-ú-s
    • Proto-Hellenic: *kapús (possibly)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *kapús
      • Proto-Slavic: *kopъtъ (soot, dim smoke) (with the partitive extension *-ъtъ) (see there for further descendants)
  • *kūp-ó-s
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *kūpōˀtei (denomial fientive)
      • Lithuanian: kūpúoti (to initiate boiling)
      • Proto-Slavic: *kypovati (to initiate boiling)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • >? Proto-Celtic: *kʷeɸ- (to pant, to breathe)[16] (possibly)
      • Welsh: peuo (to roar, to breathe) (attested relatively late)

References edit

  1. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*keu̯p “to tremble”, *ku̯eh₁p- “to simmer”, *ku̯ep- “to breathe, whisper””, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 359, 374, 376
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Derksen, Rick (2015) “kūpėti”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 264
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013) “*hwapjan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 263
  4. ^ Schrijver, Peter C. H. (1991) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Latin (Leiden studies in Indo-European; 2), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, →ISBN, pages 260-63
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) “καπνός”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 638
  6. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) “Κύπρος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 805
  7. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) “(keu̯əp-:), ku̯ēp-, keu̯əp-, kūp-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 2, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 596
  8. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015) “kvėpti”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 268
  9. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “cupiō, -ere”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 155
  10. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015) “kvapas”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 268
  11. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “vapor”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 654
  12. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) “καπυρός”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 640
  13. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) “κύπειρον”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 804
  14. ^ Delamarre, Xavier (2003) “cobro-”, in Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental [Dictionary of the Gaulish language: A linguistic approach to Old Continental Celtic] (Collection des Hespérides; 9), 2nd edition, Éditions Errance, →ISBN, page 120
  15. ^ Wodtko, Dagmar S. (2010) “U.sp. cubrar”, in Jürgen Untermann, editor, Wörterbuch der keltiberischen Inschriften [Dictionary of Celtiberian inscriptions] (Monumenta linguarum Hispanicarum; V.1), Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert, →ISBN, pages 405-6
  16. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) “*kʷef-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 176