This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Reconstruction edit

Clear cognates are found only in Italo-Celtic, Balto-Slavic and Germanic, which may point to an old European substrate word,[1] geographically confined to the west and center of the IE world.

Persian توده (tôda, masses; heap; stack, hill, rick, tumulus) and its Iranian cognates are sometimes considered descendants, but the semantic divergence is difficult to reconcile.[2]

The supposed Hittite cognate 𒌅𒍖𒍣𒅖 (tuzziš, army; camp) with the semantic shift "people" > "army" > "camp" has been criticized to be unlikely (the normal development would be "camp" > "army").[3] Kloekhorst furthermore argues that the Hittite word can formally only reflect an i-stem tewt-i-, and finally endorses an alternative etymology proposed by Melchert, from PIE *dʰh₁-uti-.

Often a derivation from either of the roots *tewh₂- (to be strong; swell)[4] (referring to the strength of community) and *tewH- (to look favorably; protect; observe)[5] +‎ *-téh₂ is considered, but the presence of a laryngeal renders that suspect.[6]

Noun edit

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*tewtéh₂ f[7]

  1. heap, pile; crowd ?
  2. people, tribe

Inflection edit

Thematic in *-eh₂
nominative *tewtéh₂
genitive *tewtéh₂s
singular dual plural
nominative *tewtéh₂
vocative *tewtéh₂
accusative *tewtā́m
genitive *tewtéh₂s
ablative *tewtéh₂s
dative *tewtéh₂ey
locative *tewtéh₂, *tewtéh₂i
instrumental *tewtéh₂h₁

Coordinate terms edit

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • >? Proto-Albanian:
  • >? Proto-Anatolian:
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *t(j)autāˀ
  • Proto-Germanic: *þeudō (see there for further descendants)
  • Illyrian: *Teuta, *Teut-[8]
  • Proto-Italic: *toutā (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Celtic: *toutā (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *tawtáH (see there for further descendants)
  • Phrygian: τευτους (teutous,

Further reading edit

References edit

  1. ^ Kloekhorst 2008: 908
  2. ^ EIEC: 417
  3. ^ Benveniste (1962: 122-5) apud Kloekhorst 2008: 908
  4. ^ LIV2: 639
  5. ^ LIV2: 639
  6. ^ EIEC: 417
  7. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  8. ^ "Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics", Matthias Fritz, 2018 -