Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/r/g-na

Asterisk.svg
This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.
Asterisk.svg
This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-TibetanEdit

EtymologyEdit

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *r-njəɣ  (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *r/g-na (Matisoff, STEDT; LaPolla, 1987; French, 1983); *g-na (Benedict, 1972)

Note that Proto-Sino-Tibetan has the same root *na for "ear" and "nose", distinguishing their meanings only with prefixes ("nose": *s-na). A parallelism exists in Chinese (wén < OC *mun, "to smell; to hear").

For Chinese , some modern Min Bei dialects attest the -Ø ~ -ŋ variation in the final (e.g. Jianyang /noiŋ/) as recorded in the historical rhyme book Jiyun. The Min Nan colloquial reading (if not a substrate borrowing) not only suggests an older nasal rhyme, it also appears to point to a proto-initial of *n̥ < *C.n̥.

NounEdit

*r/g-na

  1. ear

VerbEdit

*r/g-na

  1. to hear, to listen

DescendantsEdit

  • Old Chinese: (*C.nəʔ (B-S), *njɯʔ (ZS), ear); (cutting off ear as a punishment), (*njɯs (ZS), ear ornament)
    • Middle Chinese: (ȵɨX), , (ȵɨH)
      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: ("ear") (ěr, /ˀɤɻ²¹³/), , (èr, /ˀɤɻ⁵¹/)
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /jiː¹³/
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: (ȵi²³ (colloquial), ɦəɻ²³ (literary))
    • Min
      • Min Nan
        • Taiwan: /çĩ³³, çi³³/ (colloquial), /ni⁵¹/ (literary)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: རྣ་བ (rna ba, ear)
  • Kamarupan
  • Tangut-Qiang
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
      • Loloish
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (hnep, ear), (hnap, ear (literary)), (hna, to listen actively, to try to hear)
  • Karen: *naᴮ (Luangthongkum, 2013)

See alsoEdit