Translingual edit

Symbol edit

na

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-1 language code for Nauruan.

English edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English na, from Old English , from Old English ne (not) + ā (ever). More at no.

Adverb edit

na (not comparable)

  1. (obsolete) Not.
  2. (obsolete) No.

Etymology 2 edit

Development of Etymology 1, above; compare nah.

Interjection edit

na

  1. (Tyneside or Scotland) No.
    "Na, yor wrang."
    "Na, ye cannet watch telly."
    "Divn’t yee like milk?" "Na."

References edit

  • Frank Graham (1987) The New Geordie Dictionary, →ISBN
  • A Dictionary of North East Dialect, Bill Griffiths, 2005, Northumbria University Press, →ISBN

Etymology 3 edit

Abbreviations.

Noun edit

na

  1. (linguistics) Abbreviation of noun animate.

Etymology 4 edit

Borrowed from Tagalog na.

Adverb edit

na (not comparable)

  1. (Philippines, slang) Now; already.
    You need to sleep na.

Etymology 5 edit

Borrowed from Hindi ना ().

Adverb edit

na (not comparable)

  1. (North India, slang) isn't it?.
    It is far na?.

See also edit

Anagrams edit

'Are'are edit

Article edit

na

  1. the

References edit

Acehnese edit

Verb edit

na

  1. to be (exist)

Derived terms edit

Albanian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Indo-European *nō̆s (we).

Pronoun edit

na

  1. (Gheg) we

Alternative forms edit

Asturian edit

Etymology edit

From a contraction of the preposition en (in) + feminine singular article la (the).

Contraction edit

na f (masculine nel, neuter no, masculine plural nos, feminine plural nes)

  1. in the

Bambara edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

na

  1. stew

Etymology 2 edit

Particle edit

na (tone )

  1. auxiliary marker for future tense
    sini, i bɛ na taa sugu jɔ
    You will go to the market tomorrow

References edit

Bikol Central edit

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

na (Basahan spelling )

  1. already
    Naghali na po siya sa harong.
    S/he already left the house.
  2. yet (only in questions)
    Tapos ka na?
    Are you finished yet?
  3. anymore
    Dai na niya kayang tioson.
    S/he can't endure it anymore.

Particle edit

na (Basahan spelling )

  1. connects consonant ending noun or adjective to a noun or adjective that it modifies
    Synonym: -ng
    Bilog na bulanWhole month

Phrase edit

na (Basahan spelling )

  1. about to; bound to
    Madya na, mapuon na kita.
    Come on, we're about to start.

Blagar edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Trans-New Guinea *na. Cognate to Zia na.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

na

  1. I

Noun edit

na

  1. thing

References edit

Cameroon Pidgin edit

Pronunciation edit

Predicative edit

na

  1. copula for nouns and adjectives
    • 2019 November 19, Kimzy K-Buoy (lyrics and music), “Flex”‎[1], 0:57–0:59:
      MUSIC NA THE KEY SO I NODI PLAY
      Music is the key so I am not engaging in play.
  2. a topic marker introducing a clause to lay focus on a subject
    • 2019 November 19, Kimzy K-Buoy (lyrics and music), “Flex”‎[2], 1:39–1:42:
      I go make you number one for ma list because
      Na you be the hardest
      I will make you the number one of my list by reason that, behold, you are the hardest.

Catalan edit

Etymology edit

From the final syllable of Latin domina (Lady).

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

na f sg (elided n', masculine en)

  1. (Eastern Catalan) personal article used before feminine given names instead of the definite article la
    En Pau i na Maria arribaran demà.
    Pau and Maria will be arriving tomorrow.

Usage notes edit

  • While this article (and its masculine counterpart en) is standard in Balearic Catalan, in other Eastern Catalan dialects its use is waning, and the elided of the definite article, l', is used before names beginning with vowels. There is no plural personal article, so the plural definite article les is used in all dialects.

Related terms edit

Cavineña edit

Noun edit

na

  1. root of ena

References edit

  • Antoine Guillaume, A Grammar of Cavineña (2008, →ISBN

Central Huasteca Nahuatl edit

Pronoun edit

na

  1. I

Chavacano edit

Etymology edit

From Portuguese na, contraction of em a.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

na

  1. indirect object marker: to
    Ya dale yo todos na mi amigo.I gave everything to my friend.
  2. used to refer to the location of something or some action: in; on; at
    Na Ciudad de Zamboanga ele nacido.He/she was born in Zamboanga City.
  3. used to refer toward a location of something or some action: to; toward
  4. used to refer to a time period: at; on; in; during (of a year, month, day of the week, time of day, etc.)
  5. used to refer to a place of origin or where one comes from: from; of

Czech edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Czech na, from Proto-Slavic *na.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈna]
  • (file)

Preposition edit

na

  1. on, onto (direction, + accusative case)
    Dej skleničku na stůl.Put the glass on the table.
  2. on (location, + locative case)
    Sklenička je na stole.The glass is on the table.
  3. to (direction, + accusative case, used only with certain places (do + genitive is more common))
    Jdeme na poštu.We're going to the post office.
  4. at, in (location, + locative case, used only with certain places (v is more common))
    Jsme na poště.We're at the post office.
  5. for (purpose, + accusative case)
    Ty nůžky nejsou na hraní.The scissors are not for playing with.
  6. at (in the direction of, + accusative case)
    Nekřič na mě!Don't yell at me!

Further reading edit

  • na in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • na in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Dalmatian edit

Etymology edit

From Latin nōn.

Adverb edit

na

  1. no
  2. not

Related terms edit

Domari edit

Etymology edit

From Sanskrit नव (nava).

Numeral edit

na

  1. (Aleppo, cardinal number) nine

References edit

  • Bruno Herin (2012), “The Domari Language of Aleppo (Syria)”, in Linguistic Discovery[3], volume 10, issue 2, →DOI

Drung edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ.

Pronoun edit

na

  1. you (sg.)

References edit

  • Ross Perlin (2019) A Grammar of Trung[4], Santa Barbara: University of California

Dutch edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Dutch na, from Old Dutch *nāh, *nā, from Proto-West Germanic *nāhw, from Proto-Germanic *nēhw.

Preposition edit

na

  1. after
  2. (op ... na, with a cardinal number) bar, except Used to form ordinal numbers in relation to a superlative quality. The number that is used is 1 lower than in the English translation.
    Brazilië is met zijn 8,5 miljoen vierkante kilometer het grootste land van Zuid-Amerika en het op vier na grootste ter wereld.
    With its 8.5 million square kilometers, Brazil is the largest country in South America and the fifth largest in the world.
    Naast dat de toonladder een kenmerkend gegeven is, zijn er ook bepaalde tonen, die een speciale rol hebben, zoals de vadi en de samvadi, respectievelijk: de belangrijkste en de op een na belangrijkste toon.
    Next to [the fact] that the musical scale is a characteristic datum, there are also certain tones that have a special role, such as the vadi and the samvadi: respectively the most important and second most important tones.
Inflection edit
Derived terms edit

-verbs:

Descendants edit
  • Negerhollands: na, a
    • Virgin Islands Creole: na

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Dutch *nāh, *nā, from Proto-Germanic *nēhwaz.

Adjective edit

na (comparative nader, superlative naast)

  1. close
Inflection edit

The forms of the positive are obsolescent, particularly the inflected one. The comparative and superlative forms are functioning as independent adjectives to an increasing extent.

Inflection of na
uninflected na
inflected naë
comparative nader
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial nader het naast
het naaste
indefinite m./f. sing. naë nadere naaste
n. sing. na nader naaste
plural naë nadere naaste
definite naë nadere naaste
partitive na's naders
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Preposition edit

na

  1. (dialectal) Archaic form of naar.

Eastern Huasteca Nahuatl edit

Pronoun edit

na

  1. first person; I

See also edit

Esperanto edit

 
Esperanto Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia eo

Etymology edit

Presumably from Russian на (na) and Polish na; alternatively, from the accusative suffix -n (possibly a blend with the article la or with the suffix -a).

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

na

  1. (neologism, rare, nonstandard, proscribed) Preposition introducing an accusative phrase.
    Mi legis na Gerda Malaperis.
    I read Gerda Disappeared.

Usage notes edit

Unofficial; it is recognized by some Esperantists on the Internet, but disapproved of by most high-level speakers. Proponents recommended using it only where the accusative suffix isn't possible: with numerals (unu (one)), particles (iom (some), kies (whose)), letters (J), titles of books, and quotations, etc. More standard options are to use the general preposition je, to omit the accusative ending, or to rephrase the sentence to avoid the issue.

Galician edit

Etymology 1 edit

From contraction of preposition en (in) + feminine article a (the).

Pronunciation edit

Contraction edit

na f (masculine no, masculine plural nos, feminine plural nas)

  1. in the

Etymology 2 edit

From a mutation of a.

Pronoun edit

na f (accusative)

  1. Alternative form of a (her)
Usage notes edit

The n- forms of accusative third-person pronouns are used when the preceding word ends in -u or a diphthong, and are suffixed to the preceding word.

Related terms edit

German edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Perhaps from an unstressed form of nu.

Interjection edit

na

  1. well!, so!; used to introduce a statement
    Na, dann fangen wir mal an!
    So, let’s get started!
    Ich bin ein Narr? Na, du auch!
    I am a clown? Well, so are you!
  2. oh, hm, huh, och, nu; expressing a (usually mild) degree of surprise, doubt, or frustration
    Na, das ist ja nett, dass ihr vorbeikommt!
    Oh, that’s nice of you to come by!
    Na? Ob das so stimmt...
    Huh? Not sure if that’s correct...
    Na! Warum will das denn jetzt wieder nicht?
    Och! Why does this thing not work yet again?
    Na toll! Kein Empfang.
    Oh great! No signal.
  3. (regional, chiefly northern and central Germany) huh?; used as a question marker, often implying that the speaker knows the answer
    Was ist zwei plus drei? Na?
    What’s two plus three? Huh?
  4. (regional, chiefly northern and central Germany) hey!, hi!; used as a greeting, but with an interrogative intonation, as if saying “So? You see me there?”, or “So? How is everything?”
    Na! Lang nicht gesehen!
    Hey! Long time no see!
    Na! Wie geht’s?
    Hi! How are you?
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

A variant of nein.

Interjection edit

na

  1. (regional, chiefly southern Germany and Austria) Alternative form of nein (no)
    Na. Das geht net.
    No. That doesn’t work.

Anagrams edit

Guinea-Bissau Creole edit

Etymology edit

From Portuguese na. Cognate with Kabuverdianu na.

Preposition edit

na

  1. at
  2. in
  3. on

Hamap edit

Pronoun edit

na

  1. I (first-person singular pronoun)

References edit

Hawaiian edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

na

  1. for, belonging to, by

Usage notes edit

  • Used for acquired possessions, while no is used for possessions that are inherited, out of personal control, and for things that can be got into (houses, clothes, cars).

Hungarian edit

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

na

  1. well, so, hey
    Na, nem baj.Well, no problem.
    Itt van Péter. – Na és?“Peter is here.” “So what?”
    Na, gyerünk!Alright, let's go!
    Na, ne mondj ilyet!Hey, don't say that!
    Na, ez fáj!Hey, that hurts!

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • na in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

Ingrian edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Russian на (na).

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

na

  1. here! there you go! (said when handing something over)

References edit

  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 331

Irish edit

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

na (definite article)

  1. genitive singular feminine of an (triggers h-prothesis)
    na háiteof the place
  2. nominative/dative plural of an (triggers h-prothesis)
    na héinthe birds
    ó na cailínífrom the girls
  3. genitive plural of an (triggers eclipsis)
    na bpáistíof the children

Contraction edit

na

  1. Nonstandard form of ina

Mutation edit

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
na not applicable not applicable
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Descendants edit

  • Yola: na

Further reading edit

  • Ó Dónaill, Niall (1977), “na”, in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, Dublin: An Gúm, →ISBN
  • Entries containing “na” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
  • Entries containing “na” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

Japanese edit

Romanization edit

na

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Kabuverdianu edit

Etymology edit

From Portuguese na.

Preposition edit

na

  1. at
  2. in
  3. on

Kapampangan edit

Pronunciation edit

  • Hyphenation: na
  • IPA(key): /nə/, [nə]

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *ni-a, from Proto-Austronesian *ni-a.

Pronoun edit

na

  1. 3rd person singular possessive/ergative pronoun: he; his; she; her; it; its
    Bayu ya ing bale na.
    Her/his house is new.
    Nanu ing seli na?
    What did s/he buy?

Etymology 2 edit

Possibly a contraction of nanu (what). Compare Tagalog 'no, Japanese (na), (ne).

Interjection edit

na

  1. (masculine, informal, mild emphatic) used to get someone's attention, generally carries neutral or slightly positive connotations
    Na munta ka?
    Hey, are you going?
    Na dimdam me?
    Hey, did you hear?

Particle edit

na

  1. (informal, mild emphatic) sentence-final particle indicating emotion or mild emphasis
    Makanini namu siguru na?
    Maybe it is what it is, isn't it?
    Nokarin nakaman munta na?
    Where are you going, huh?

Ligature edit

na

  1. Connects adjectives to nouns.
    Malairo na banwa.
    the blue sky.
    kakatua na tau.
    A strange person.

Adverb edit

na

  1. already; now (expresses the event when following a verb)
    Yari na.
    Finished already.
    Munta naka.
    Are you going now?.
  2. already; now (declares the event of action when following a verb in the past tense)
    Matudtud na.
    Slept already.
    Sinali na.
    Bought already.
  3. already; now (suggests immediate or quick action when following the infinitive form and future tense of the verb)
    Lungub nakata.
    Let's go in already.
    Pepasali nakung panulu.
    I'm having someone buy the medicine now.

See also edit

Karaim edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *na.

Interjection edit

na

  1. here you are! take it!

Kasem edit

Noun edit

na

  1. water

References edit

Kashubian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈna/
  • Syllabification: na

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *na.

Preposition edit

na

  1. denotes superessive position; on [+locative]
    Synonym:
  2. denotes sublative movement; onto [+accusative]

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *na.

Interjection edit

na

  1. emphatic particle used with imperatives to speed up a performed action; c'mon, now

Further reading edit

  • Stefan Ramułt (1893), “na”, in Słownik języka pomorskiego czyli kaszubskiego, page 110
  • Eùgeniusz Gòłąbk (2011), “na 1”, in Słownik Polsko-Kaszubski / Słowôrz Pòlskò-Kaszëbsczi, volume 2, page 2
  • Eùgeniusz Gòłąbk (2011), “na 2”, in Słownik Polsko-Kaszubski / Słowôrz Pòlskò-Kaszëbsczi, volume 2, page 2
  • na”, in Internetowi Słowôrz Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka [Internet Dictionary of the Kashubian Language], Fundacja Kaszuby, 2022
  • na!”, in Internetowi Słowôrz Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka [Internet Dictionary of the Kashubian Language], Fundacja Kaszuby, 2022

Kikuyu edit

Particle edit

na

  1. (instrumental) with[1]
    Gũtema na kanua ti gũtema na rũhiũ.
    To cut with a mouth is not to cut with a knife.
  2. (comitative) and, with[1]
    Ikinya na thĩ itiaganaga.
    The foot and the earth cannot help meeting.
  3. (source) from[1]
    Synonym: kuuma
    Wega uumaga na mũciĩ.
    Goodness comes from home.
  4. but[1]
    Kanua njero, na mũciĩ ndũkomeka nĩ heho.
    The mouth is sweet, but the house is too cold to lie at.

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 “na” in Benson, T.G. (1964). Kikuyu-English dictionary, p. 277. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Kilivila edit

Noun edit

na

  1. (in compounds) woman

References edit

  • Gunter Senft (1986), Kilivila: the Language of the Trobriand Islanders. Berlin • New York • Amsterdam: Mouton de Gruyter, p. 372, 591. →ISBN

Ladin edit

Article edit

na f

  1. an, a

Synonyms edit

See also edit

Ladino edit

Interjection edit

na (Latin spelling, Hebrew spellingנה⁩)

  1. here! behold!

Lakota edit

Conjunction edit

na

  1. and

Latin edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

  1. imperative singular of , swim!

References edit

Lingala edit

Etymology edit

Of native Bobangi origin (compare Swahili na), but its functional broadening to "in, at" may be under the influence of West African languages; compare Igbo na, Krio na.

Preposition edit

na

  1. with, and
  2. in, at
  3. of (form of ya before personal pronouns)

Lower Sorbian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *na.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

na

  1. (with locative) on, in
  2. (with accusative) on, onto

Further reading edit

  • Muka, Arnošt (1921, 1928), “na_2”, in Słownik dolnoserbskeje rěcy a jeje narěcow (in German), St. Petersburg, Prague: ОРЯС РАН, ČAVU; Reprinted Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag, 2008
  • Starosta, Manfred (1999), “na”, in Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch (in German), Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag

Luganda edit

Conjunction edit

na

  1. and (only used if the overall statement is grammatically negative)

See also edit

References edit

The Essentials of Luganda, J. D. Chesswas, 4th edition. Oxford University Press: Nairobi. 1967, p. 94.

Macanese edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Portuguese na, itself from Old Galician-Portuguese na. Semantically, compare Chavacano na.

Preposition edit

na

  1. in
    botâ na fóliato place in the newspaper
    Já levâ ung'a perada na cara qui ficó vangueado.
    The ball hit him so hard in the face that he fainted.
  2. at
    na casaat home
    na festaat the party
  3. on
    estendê na chámto stretch on the ground
Usage notes edit
  • As grammatical gender is not differentiated in Macanese, na is invariable, and there is no alternative form *no.
  • Unlike the Chavacano term, the preposition does not bear the meaning of "to"; that function is fulfilled by pa.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Possibly a reduced form of Portuguese ainda.

Alternative forms edit

Adverb edit

na

  1. still, yet
    Já cavâ fazê liçam di casa? Nunca , faltâ três folia
    Have you finished your homework yet? Not yet, I still have three pages
    Ela tâ assí chistosa na? Certo, iou-sa Marichai dia-a-dia tâ más bunita
    She still looks so pretty, doesn't she? Of course, my Marichai gets prettier by the day

Etymology 3 edit

Borrowed from Cantonese (naa4).

Alternative forms edit

Interjection edit

na

  1. here!, here you go, here you are (offering something to the listener)

Particle edit

na

  1. emphatic particle
    Cudí !Help!
    Vai racolê !Get lost!

References edit

Mandarin edit

Pronunciation edit

Romanization edit

na (na5na0, Zhuyin ˙ㄋㄚ)

  1. Hanyu Pinyin reading of
  2. Hanyu Pinyin reading of

na

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes edit

  • Transcriptions of Mandarin into the Latin script often do not distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without indication of tone.

Masurian edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Polish na.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈna]
  • Syllabification: na

Preposition edit

na

  1. Denotes superessive position; on [+locative]
  2. Denotes sublative movement; onto [+accusative]
  3. Denotes location with events; at [+locative]
  4. Denotes the length of time for which an action will be done; for, by [+accusative]
  5. Denotes manner [+accusative] or [+adverb]
  6. Denotes an instrument or tool [+locative] or [+accusative]
  7. Denotes measure; by [+accusative]
  8. Denotes result of actions [+accusative]
  9. Denotes cause of action [+accusative]
  10. Denotes aim of action [+accusative]
  11. Denotes aim of action [+accusative]
  12. Indicating the object of action, influence, state [+accusative]
  13. Indicating a criterion for comparison or comparison and a point of reference by which something is distinguished [+accusative]
  14. Denotes a color to which something is painted [+accusative] or [+adverb]

Interjection edit

na

  1. take it! here!

Further reading edit

  • Zofia Stamirowska (1987-2021), “na”, in Anna Basara, editor, Słownik gwar Ostródzkiego, Warmii i Mazur, volume 4, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, →ISBN, page 212

Middle Dutch edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Dutch nāh, from Proto-Germanic *nēhw.

Preposition edit

na

  1. towards
  2. behind
  3. after, following, later than
  4. in accordance with, based on

Adverb edit

na

  1. afterwards, later
  2. close, near
Descendants edit
  • Dutch: na
  • Limburgish: nao

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Dutch *nāh, from Proto-Germanic *nēhwaz.

Adjective edit

  1. close
Inflection edit

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Further reading edit

Mpade edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Central Chadic *nɨh.

Verb edit

na

  1. to ripen

References edit

Neapolitan edit

Feminine form of nu, from Latin ūnus.

Alternative forms edit

  • n' (before words starting with a vowel)

Etymology edit

From Latin ūna.

Article edit

na f sg

  1. a, an

Northern Kurdish edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Iranian *ná, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *ná, from Proto-Indo-European *ne. Related to ne.

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

na

  1. no

Northern Ndebele edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-nɪ̀a.

Verb edit

-na

  1. to rain

Inflection edit

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Northern Sami edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

na

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Further reading edit

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002–2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[5], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Northern Sotho edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-nɪ̀a.

Verb edit

na

  1. to rain

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse hana, the accusative form of hon (she). Compare with Swedish na. The correct term in Norwegian Bokmål would be henne, and either ho or henne in Norwegian Nynorsk.

Pronoun edit

na

  1. (dialectal, colloquial) her; object form of ho

Usage notes edit

  • It is almost without exceptions used as a clitic, and is always unstressed.

See also edit

Ojibwe edit

Particle edit

na

  1. Question marker for yes/no questions. It is always placed after the first word in the sentence. If the first word ends in a vowel, use the particle na; if it ends in a consonant, use ina.

Synonyms edit

Old Czech edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *na.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

na

  1. on, onto (direction, + accusative case)
    I přivedli oslici a oslátko s ní, i položichu na ně rúcha svá.(please add an English translation of this usage example)
  2. on (location, + locative case)
  3. for (purpose, + accusative case)
  4. at (in the direction of, + accusative case)

Descendants edit

Further reading edit

Old English edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-West Germanic *nai (never), equivalent to a contraction of ne (not) and ā (ever).

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

  1. not, no
    Nis þæt rēad, ac is grēne.
    That's not red, it's green.
    Þæt iċ cwæþ for þon āne þe iċ bet nysse.
    I only said that because I didn't know any better (literally "no better").
    • Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Version B, year 897
      Þȳ ilcan sumora forwearþ lǣs þonne twēntiġ sċipa be þǣm sūðriman.
      That same summer, no less than twenty ships perished on the south coast.
    • c. 990, Wessex Gospels, Matthew 22:17
      Is hit ālīefed þæt man Cāsere gafol selle, þe ?
      Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?
    • c. 992, Ælfric, "The Fifth Sunday in Lent"
      Dryhten nis ōðrum mannum tō wiþmetenne.
      The Lord is not comparable to other people.
    • c. 995, Ælfric, Extracts on Grammar in English
      Nōn egō, sed tū: “ iċ, ac þū.” Nōn bōs est, sed equus: “Nis hit oxa, ac is hors.”
      Non ego, sed tu: “Not me, you.” Non bos est, sed equus: “It's not an ox, it's a horse.”
  2. (poetic) never

Conjunction edit

  1. not
    • c. 992, Ælfric, "Midlent"
      Māre wundor is þæt God Ælmihtiġ ǣlce dæġe fētt ealne middanġeard þonne þæt wundor wǣre þæt hē þā ġefylde fīf þūsende manna mid fīf hlāfum—ac þæs wundrodon menn for þȳ þæt hit māre wundor wǣre, ac for þȳ þæt hit wæs unġewunelīċ.
      It's more of a miracle that God Almighty feeds the whole world every day than that he fed five thousand people with five loaves of bread—but that amazed people not because it was more miraculous, but because it was unusual.

Synonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

See also edit

Old Frisian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-West Germanic *nai, equivalent to a blend of ne (not) +‎ ā (ever). Akin to Old English .

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

  1. never
Descendants edit
  • West Frisian: nea

Particle edit

  1. no
Descendants edit
  • Saterland Frisian: noa

Etymology 2 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

(+ dative)

  1. Alternative form of nēi

References edit

  • Bremmer, Rolf H. (2009) An Introduction to Old Frisian: History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISBN

Old Irish edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

na (triggers /h/-prothesis in the feminine genitive singular, in the feminine and neuter nominative plural, and in the accusative plural; triggers eclipsis in the genitive plural)

  1. Aphetic form of inna (the (various inflected forms))

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

na (‘his’ and ‘its’ trigger lenition, ‘her’ triggers /h/-prothesis, ‘their’ triggers eclipsis)

  1. Aphetic form of inna (in his/her/its/their)

Etymology 3 edit

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

na

  1. neuter nominative/accusative singular of nach (any)

Etymology 4 edit

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

na

  1. Alternative spelling of (don’t)

Old Polish edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *na. First attested in the 14th century.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

na

  1. denotes sublative movement; onto [+accusative]
  2. denotes movement towards some nouns; to, toward [+accusative]
  3. denotes the length of time for which an action will be done; for [+accusative]
  4. denotes a goal or purpose; for [+accusative]
  5. used in some temporal and physical measurements; by [+accusative] or [+locative]
  6. denotes superessive position; on [+locative]
  7. denotes a period of time; during [+locc]
  8. denotes frequency; per [+case]
  9. denotes location with events; at [+locative]
  10. denotes manner [+accusative]

Descendants edit

  • Masurian: na
  • Polish: na
  • Silesian: na

References edit

Pali edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Sanskrit (na).

Particle edit

na

  1. no, not

Etymology 2 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Adjective edit

na

  1. (demonstrative) that
Declension edit
Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit
  • ena (this)
  • (her)

Pronoun edit

na m or n

  1. (demonstrative) that
  2. him, it
  3. (in the plural) them
    • 2006, The Fifth Book in the Suttanta-Pitaka: Majjhimanikāya (II)[6], page 558:
      පුන ච පරං භන‍්තෙ, ඉමෙ ඉසිදත‍්තපුරාණා ථපතයො මමභත‍්තා
      මමයානා අහං නෙසං ජීවිතස‍්ස පදාතා යසස‍්ස ආහත‍්තා අථ ච පන
      නො තථා මයි නිපච‍්චාකාරං කරොන‍්ති යථා භගවති.
      Puna ca paraṃ bhante, ime isidattapurāṇā thapatayo mamabhattā
      mamayānā ahaṃ nesaṃ jīvitassa padātā yasassa āhattā atha ca pana
      no tathā mayi nipaccākāraṃ karonti yathā bhagavati.
      Furthermore, sir, these chamberlains Isidatta and Purāṇa share my meals and my carriages. I give them a livelihood and bring them renown. And yet they don’t show me the same level of devotion that they show to the Buddha.
Usage notes edit

Note that this is not used to reference, explicitly or implicitly, a neuter noun in the plural.

Declension edit
Synonyms edit

References edit

Pali Text Society (1921–1925), “na”, in Pali-English Dictionary‎, London: Chipstead

Papiamentu edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Portuguese na and Kabuverdianu na.

Preposition edit

na

  1. at
  2. in
  3. inside
  4. on

Etymology 2 edit

From Dutch naar.

Preposition edit

na

  1. to
  2. towards

Phalura edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Sanskrit (na, not).

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

na (negating, Perso-Arabic spellingنہ⁩)

  1. not
  2. don't

References edit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[7], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985), “na”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press

Etymology 2 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

na (Perso-Arabic spellingنہ⁩)

  1. no!

References edit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[8], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Phuthi edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-nɪ̀a.

Verb edit

-na

  1. to rain

Inflection edit

This entry needs an inflection-table template.

Polish edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Polish na.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

na

  1. Denotes superessive position; on [+locative]
    Siedzę na koniu.I'm on a horse.
  2. Denotes location with events; at [+locative]
    Mieszkam na wsi.I live in the countryside.
  3. Denotes sublative movement; onto [+accusative]
    Uważaj, zaraz to na mnie spadnie!Watch out, it's going to fall on me!
  4. Denotes the length of time for which an action will be done; for, by [+accusative]
    Sprawozdanie ma być gotowe na piątą.The report should be ready by five o'clock.
  5. Denotes a goal or purpose; for, to deal with [+accusative]
    lek na grypęflu medication
    na zdrowiefor [your] health; cheers; bless you.
  6. Denotes frequency; per [+case]
    pięć metrów na sekundęfive meters per second
  7. Denotes manner. [+accusative] or [+adverb]
    pasażer na gapęstowaway
    deser na kwaśnosour dessert
  8. (mathematics) Surjective usage; onto [+accusative]

Adjective edit

na (not comparable, no derived adverb)

  1. (mathematics) onto; surjective

Interjection edit

na

  1. (obsolete) take it! here!

Usage notes edit

  • When used as an adjective, this word is indeclinable, postpositive (when used attributively), and usually placed inside quotation marks, e.g. funkcja „na”.

Trivia edit

According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), na is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 1784 times in scientific texts, 1884 times in news, 1681 times in essays, 1932 times in fiction, and 1319 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 8600 times, making it the 5th most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

References edit

  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990), “na”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language] (in Polish), volume 1, Kraków; Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 261

Further reading edit

  • na in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • na in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • na”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish], 2010-2023
  • na”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish], 2010-2023
  • NA”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century], 29.01.2012
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814), “na”, in Słownik języka polskiego
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861), “na”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861
  • J. Karłowicz, A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1904), “na”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 3, Warsaw, page 1

Portuguese edit

Pronunciation edit

  • Hyphenation: na

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese na, clipping of ena, from en (in) + a (the).

Contraction edit

na f sg

  1. Contraction of em a (in the): feminine singular of no
Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:no.

Preposition edit

na

  1. at
  2. in

Etymology 2 edit

Pronoun edit

na

  1. Alternative form of a (third-person feminine singular objective pronoun) used as an enclitic following a verb form ending in a nasal vowel or diphthong
Usage notes edit
  • This form is not found in Brazilian speech.
Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:no.

Riantana edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Trans-New Guinea *na. Cognate to Blagar na.

Pronoun edit

na

  1. I

Romani edit

Etymology edit

From Sanskrit (na, no).

Adverb edit

na

  1. not

Interjection edit

na

  1. right?; tag question

Particle edit

na

  1. no

References edit

  • Dieter W. Halwachs (), “Morphology”, in Romani Projekt Graz[9], archived from the original on 2016-04-13
  • Yūsuke Sumi (2018), “na”, in ニューエクスプレスプラス ロマ(ジプシー)語 [New Express Plus Romani (Gypsy)] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Hakusuisha, published 2021, →ISBN, →OCLC, page 152

Romanian edit

Etymology edit

Cognate to Bulgarian на (na), from Proto-Slavic *na.

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

na

  1. here you are! take it!

Further reading edit

Samoan edit

Pronoun edit

na

  1. he / she

See also edit

Sango edit

Conjunction edit

na

  1. and

Scottish Gaelic edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): (etymologies 1-3) /na/, (etymologies 4-7) /nə/

Etymology 1 edit

Univerbation of an (in) +‎ a (his/her).

Preposition edit

na (+ dative)

  1. (triggers lenition) in his; in its
  2. (triggers H-prothesis) in her; in its
Inflection edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Irish indás (than (it) is).

Conjunction edit

na

  1. than

Etymology 3 edit

From Old Irish .

Particle edit

na

  1. don’t (particle used to introduce a negative imperative; triggers h-prothesis of a following vowel)
    Na bruidhinn!
    Do not speak!
  2. particle used to emphasise a negative reply to a question
    An do rinn iad e Disathairne? – Cha do rinn na!
    Did they do it on Saturday? – They certainly did not!

Etymology 4 edit

From Old Irish a (that which).

Pronoun edit

na

  1. all that, that which, whatever, what

Etymology 5 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Article edit

na (triggers H-prothesis)

  1. inflection of an (the):
    1. genitive singular feminine
    2. nominative or dative plural
Declension edit
Variation of na (definite article)
Masculine Feminine Plural
nom. dat. gen. nom. dat. gen. nom. dat. gen.
+ f- am anL anL na na nam
+ m-, p- or b- am a'L a'L na na nam
+ c- or g- an a'L a'L na na nan
+ sV-, sl-, sn- or sr- an anT anT na na nan
+ other consonant an an an na na nan
+ vowel anT an an naH naH nan
L Triggers lenition; H Triggers H-prothesis; T Triggers T-prothesis

Etymology 6 edit

Univerbation of an (interrogative particle) +‎ do (past tense particle)

Particle edit

na

  1. (chiefly Lewis, colloquial) marks an interrogative in the past tense
    Na rinn thu sin?Did you do that?

Etymology 7 edit

From Old Irish , .

Conjunction edit

na

  1. Alternative form of no

Serbo-Croatian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *na.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

na (Cyrillic spelling на)

  1. (+ locative case) on, at, in (with certain nouns, expressing location without a change of position, answering the question gdjȅ/gdȅ; see usage notes below)
    knjiga je na stoluthe book is on the table
    biti na koncertuto be at the concert
    biti na ulicito be in the street
    zv(ij)ezde na nebustars in the sky
  2. (+ locative case) on (indicating medium)
    čuti nešto na radijuto hear something on the radio
  3. (+ accusative case) to, on, onto (with certain nouns, expressing the goal of motion, answering questions kùda (Bosnian, Serbian) or kȁmo (Croatian); see usage notes below)
    staviti knjigu na sto(l)to put a book on the table
    ići na koncertto go to a concert
  4. (+ accusative case) for (with verbs of motion and certain other verbs, to express something which will last for a limited period; after that a reverse action is implied)
    otići nekuda/nekamo na dva danato go somewhere for two days
  5. (+ accusative case) in (used with seasons)
    na l(j)etoin summer, next summer, the following summer
  6. (+ accusative case) noun attribute for permanent properties, such as sources of power or energy, but not including purpose
    krevet na katbunk bed (literally, “bed on story, level”)
    podmornica na atomski pogonnuclear-powered submarine (literally, “submarine (run) on the nuclear power”)
    jaje na okosunny-side up egg (literally, “egg on the eye”)
    ljubav na daljinulong-distance relationship (literally, “love on distance”)
    r(ij)eči na awords ending in a (literally, “words on a”)
  7. (+ accusative case) by, on, through (adverbial phrase of manner)
    ući na prednja vratato enter through the front door (literally, “to enter on the front door”)
    plaćena na satpaid by the hour (literally, “paid on an hour”)
    na brzinuhastily (literally, “on speed”)
    na vr(ij)emeon time
  8. (+ accusative case) indirect object of certain verbs
    vikati na ljudeto yell at people
    pods(j)ećati na nekogto remind of someone
  9. (+ accusative case) a part of certain set expressions, which can be spelled also as one word in Croatian
    na srećuluckily
    na prim(j)erfor example

Usage notes edit

na is used to indicate the location (with locative) or the goal of motion (with accusative), with:

  • surfaces, either horizontal (table) or vertical (wall), including open spaces such as playgrounds, mountains, islands, most neighborhoods, pictures, the sky
  • activities, such as ručak lunch, odmor vacation, posao work, predavanje lecture, sastanak meeting
  • exposure to the sun, fresh air, wind, rain and snow (na suncu ― in the sun)
  • limits: rub, ivica edge, početak beginning, kraj end, vrh top, dno bottom
  • languages (na engleskom ― in English)
  • with more sea, to express at/to the seaside; with selo village, to express in/to the countryside
  • the noun fakultet

Interjection edit

na! (Cyrillic spelling на!)

  1. Here you are! Take it!
  2. Help yourself!

Shona edit

Shona cardinal numbers
 <  3 4 5  > 
    Cardinal : na
    Ordinal : china

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-nàì.

Adjective edit

-na

  1. four

Inflection edit

Sicilian edit

Article edit

na f sg

  1. (indefinite) a, an

See also edit

Sicilian articles
Masculine Feminine
indefinite singular un, nu na
definite singular lu, û la, â
definite plural li, î li, î

Silesian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈna/
  • Rhymes: -a
  • Syllabification: na

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Old Polish na, from Proto-Slavic *na.

Preposition edit

na

  1. denotes superessive position; on [+locative]
    Antonym: pod
  2. denotes inessive position of some countries and regions; in, [+locative]
    Synonym: w
    Antonym: poza
  3. denotes location with events; at [+locative]
  4. denotes sublative movement; onto [+accusative]
    Synonyms: do, ku
  5. denotes time; for [+accusative]
  6. denotes measurement; by [+accusative]
  7. denotes aim of an action; for [+accusative]
  8. denotes color of painted object [+adverb]
  9. denotes manner [+adverb]

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *na.

Interjection edit

na

  1. used when giving someone something; here!
  2. filler word; well

Further reading edit

  • na in dykcjonorz.eu
  • na in silling.org

Slovak edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *na, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂en-.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

na

  1. (with locative) on (touching from above)
    Synonyms: navrchu, po
    • 1922, Terézia Vansová, Na Čertovici. In: Z našej dediny:
      Na koči sedel pán, cifrovaný, ako páni bývajú.
      A nobleman was sitting on the carriage in decorated clothes, as noblemen usually are.
  2. (with locative) by, with, using (indicates a means or an instrument)
    Synonym: o
  3. (with locative) at (indicates time)
    • 1873, Ján Kalinčiak, Láska a pomsta. Chapter 1:
      Bol večer na konci jara.
      It was an evening at the end of the spring.
  4. (with locative) at, because of (indicates reason)
    Synonyms: z, zo
  5. (with locative, in connection with byť) on, usually translated with a corresponsing verb (indicates state)
  6. (with accusative) on, to (indicates motion towards the upper surface of an object or contact with the object from any side)
    Synonyms: smerom na, smerom do, smerom k, o
    • 1846, Ján Kalinčiak, Milkov hrob. Chapter 10:
      Musel znovu vysadnúť na koňa a ísť za chlapom, ktorého poslal s ním kuchár.
      He had to mount the horse again and follow the man, whom the cook had sent with him.
  7. (with accusative) for, on, to (indicates purpose or goal)
    Synonyms: po, proti, pri
    • 1842, Jozef Miloslav Hurban, Svadba kráľa veľkomoravského. Chapter 3:
      Takmer celý nasledujúci deň po príchode, určený na hry a rytierske preteky, strávil v rade.
      He spent almost the whole day after the arrival, which was dedicated to plays and tournaments, with the council.
  8. (with accusative) at, on (indicates time)
    Synonyms: cez, počas, v
    • 1910, Ľudmila Podjavorinská, Žena :
      Štefan Zaťko, otec piatich detí, cez Vianoce pochoval ženu a na Tri krále prišiel o ohlášky.
      Štefan Zaťko, a father or five children, buried his wife at Christmas and on Epiphany he came to arrange his banns.
  9. (with accusative) at, because of, of (indicates reason)
    Synonyms: s, so, z, zo
    • 1943, Dobroslav Chrobák, Drak sa vracia. Chapter 2:
      Nezomrel od staroby, ani na chorobu, ale po páde do jamy na hlinu.
      He did not die of old age, nor of a disease, but after he fell in a pit for dirt.

Further reading edit

  • na”, in Slovníkový portál Jazykovedného ústavu Ľ. Štúra SAV [Dictionary portal of the Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Science] (in Slovak), https://slovnik.juls.savba.sk, 2024

Slovene edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *na.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

na

  1. (with locative) on (stationary)
  2. (with accusative) onto (motion towards)
  3. (with accusative) at, on (a moment in time)

Further reading edit

  • na”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Somali edit

Adverb edit

na

  1. moreover

Southern Ndebele edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *-nɪ̀a.

Verb edit

-na

  1. to rain

Inflection edit

This entry needs an inflection-table template.

Spanish edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈna/ [ˈna]
  • Rhymes: -a
  • Syllabification: na

Etymology 1 edit

Contraction of enna.

Contraction edit

na

  1. (obsolete) Contraction of en la (in the).

Etymology 2 edit

Representing accents where intervocalic /d/ is lost after a stressed syllable.

Alternative forms edit

Pronoun edit

na

  1. Pronunciation spelling of nada.
Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Sranan Tongo edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Dutch naar.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

na

  1. to

Sumerian edit

Romanization edit

na

  1. Romanization of 𒈾

Swahili edit

Etymology edit

Akin to Lingala na, Luganda na. From Proto-Bantu *nà.

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

na

  1. and
  2. with
  3. by

Usage notes edit

Older or more conservative Swahili writings only use na to connect two nouns, never to connect two adjectives; the second adjective is changed into an abstract noun instead. However, in modern colloquial Swahili, this is not always the case.

na can be suffixed with special suffixes (for human pronominals) or any -o of reference (for other objects) to inflect it with an object (for example, nayo = "with it"):

Inflection edit

Verb edit

-na

  1. present stem of -wa na (to have)
    sinachoI do not have it

Swazi edit

Particle edit

  1. Interrogative particle; indicates a yes-no question. Placed at the end of the sentence.

Swedish edit

Etymology edit

From Old Swedish hana, accusative form of hon. In most dialects, the corresponding dative form (henne, in Old Norse: hænni) has taken its place.[1] Compare Norwegian Nynorsk na.

Pronoun edit

na

  1. (dialectal) her; accusative/dative of hon
    Synonym: henne
    – Har hon sett'na? – Jo, hon såg'na igår, och gav'na brevet. Jag var hem ti'na [till'na] igår och snacka [snackade] me'na [med'na] [clipping "till," "med," and "-de" from the past tense is common in general and not dialectal].
    – Has she seen her? – Yeah, she saw her yesterday, and gave her the letter. I went to her house ("was home to her" – standard) yesterday and talked to her.

Usage notes edit

  • Common enough to be understood by all native speakers.
  • Rarely in written form unless supposed to imitate (dialectal) speech. See also the usage notes for honom.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ han in Elof Hellquist, Svensk etymologisk ordbok (1st ed., 1922)

Anagrams edit

Tagalog edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Influenced by Baybayin character (na).

Noun edit

na (Baybayin spelling )

  1. the name of the Latin-script letter N, in the Abakada alphabet.
    Synonyms: (in the Filipino alphabet) en, (in the Abecedario) ene
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Philippine *na (now; already). Compare Bikol Central na, Cebuano na, Hiligaynon na, and Tausug na.

Adverb edit

na (Baybayin spelling )

  1. already; now; anymore (expresses the event when following a verb)
    Tapos na.
    Finished already.
    Yari na tayo.
    We've now been made.
  2. already; now (declares the event of action when following a verb in the past tense)
    Natulog na.
    Slept already.
    Bumili na.
    Bought already.
  3. already; now (suggests immediate or quick action when following the infinitive form and future tense of the verb)
    Pumasok na tayo.
    Let's go in already.
    Ipinabibili ko na ang gamot.
    I'm having someone buy the medicine now.

Adjective edit

na (Baybayin spelling )

  1. already; now (expresses the event when following a noun)
    Bagsak na.
    Failure already.
    Abogado na siya.
    He/She is now a lawyer.
  2. now; already (expresses a shift or change in the performance of a task when following a personal pronoun)
    Ako na.
    My turn.
    (literally, “Me now.”)
    Ikaw na.
    Your turn.
    (literally, “You now.”)
    Siya na.
    His/her turn.
    (literally, “Him/her now.”)
See also edit

Etymology 3 edit

From Proto-Austronesian *na (linker marking emphatic attribution).

Ligature edit

na (Baybayin spelling )

  1. Connects words, phrases, and sentences: which is; that is; who is
    1. Connects adjectives to nouns.
      May matinis na boses siya.
      He/she has a piercing voice.
      Mahilig ako sa mga matatangkad na lalaki
      I like tall boys.
    2. Connects adverbs to verbs.
      Siya ay mabilis na tumakbo.
      He/she ran fast.
      Malugod ka naming tinatanggap.
      We welcome you.
    3. Connects clauses: that; to
      Masaya ka lang na meron kang pera.
      You're only happy that you have money.
      Magandang ipanggawa ng saranggola.
      Good to use to make a kite.
    4. Connects quantifiers (mayroon and wala only uses -ng)
      Tanang PilipinoEvery Filipino.
      Mayroon kang kanin sa pisngi mo
      You have rice on your cheeks.
      Apat na palo.Four sticks.
Usage notes edit
  • na becomes the -ng suffix if the preceding word ends in a vowel.
    Magandang bulaklak
    Pretty flower
    Bigla siyang nagsalita.
    He/She suddenly spoke.
  • Words ending in -n will become -ng (-g)
    Dayuhang turista
    Foreign tourist
    Siya ay dahan-dahang pumunta doon.
    He/She carefully went there.
See also edit

Further reading edit

  • na”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018

Tày edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Tai *ʰnaːᴬ (thick). Cognate with Lao ໜາ (), ᦐᦱ (ṅaa), Shan ၼႃ (nǎa), Ahom 𑜃𑜡 (), Bouyei nal, Zhuang na, Thai หนา (nǎa).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

na (,𪿣)

  1. thick
    phải nathick fabric
    律𪫆𥿯[]
    Loảt mừa phải tắm na
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    遮敏詩
    Gụm na già mắn thí
    With a thick [layer of] protection, it will be firmly covered.
  2. bold, brave
    nả nashameless, bold

Derived terms edit

References edit

  • Hoàng Văn Ma; Lục Văn Pảo; Hoàng Chí (2006) Từ điển Tày-Nùng-Việt [Tay-Nung-Vietnamese dictionary] (in Vietnamese), Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Từ điển Bách khoa Hà Nội
  • Lương Bèn (2011) Từ điển Tày-Việt [Tay-Vietnamese dictionary]‎[10][11] (in Vietnamese), Thái Nguyên: Nhà Xuất bản Đại học Thái Nguyên
  • Lục Văn Pảo; Hoàng Tuấn Nam (2003), Hoàng Triều Ân, editor, Từ điển chữ Nôm Tày [A Dictionary of (chữ) Nôm Tày]‎[12] (in Vietnamese), Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Khoa học Xã hội

Tok Pisin edit

Etymology edit

From English and.

Conjunction edit

na

  1. and
    • 1995, John Verhaar, Toward a reference grammar of Tok Pisin: an experiment in corpus linguistics[13], →ISBN, page 433:
      Mekim olsem pinis, orait tupela i planim taro na banana, na kumu, painap, kon, tomato, na kaukau tu.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
    • 1986, John Hunter, “Vocabulary”, in Papua New Guinea phrasebook[14], →ISBN, page 60:
      and - na
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)

Derived terms edit

Tooro edit

Tooro numbers (edit)
40[a], [b]
[a], [b] ←  3 4 5  → [a], [b]
    Cardinal: -na, (in abstract counting) ina
    Ordinal: -a kana
    Adverbial: kana, enyakana, emirundi ena
    Fractional: ekicweka ekya kana

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Bantu *-nàì. Cognate with Swahili -nne and Tswana -nne. Doublet of omunaana (eight).

Numeral edit

-na

  1. four
Declension edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Bantu *nà. Cognate with Swahili na, Lingala na and Luganda na.

Conjunction edit

na (apocopic form n')

  1. and
  2. with, by

Adverb edit

na (apocopic form n')

  1. even
    Na Kisembo naasobora kwetegereza.Even Kisembo can understand.

References edit

  1. Entry 3674 at Bantu Lexical Reconstructions 3
  2. Kaji, Shigeki (2007) A Rutooro Vocabulary[15] (in English), Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa (ILCAA), →ISBN, pages 148, 439-441

Turkish edit

Etymology edit

From Russian на (na) or Ukrainian на (na).

Interjection edit

na

  1. (dialect, Trabzon, Rize) here it is! take it!
    Synonym: işte!

Tzotzil edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

na

  1. house

Inflection edit

Derived terms edit

(Nouns)

References edit

Unami edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

na

  1. that (animate)

Venda edit

Conjunction edit

na

  1. and
  2. with

Venetian edit

Article edit

na f sg

  1. a, an

Vietnamese edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(classifier cây, trái, quả) na (𦰡)

  1. (Northern Vietnam) sugar apple (Annona squamosa)
    Synonym: mãng cầu

Anagrams edit

Welsh edit

Etymology 1 edit

Cognate with Old Irish nach,[1] ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ne (negative particle) + *-kʷe (and).

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

na

  1. no

Particle edit

na (triggers mixed mutation)

  1. not (in answers and tag questions)
  2. (literary) don’t (with verbs in the imperative mood)
Usage notes edit
  • Triggers mixed mutation (i.e. aspirate of p, t, c and soft of remaining mutatable letters) of a following consonant.
  • The form nac is used before a vowel. When the following consonant is g, which disappears under soft mutation, the form na remains, thus na + gallan becomes naallan, not *nac allan.
Alternative forms edit
  • nac (used before a vowel)

Conjunction edit

na (triggers mixed mutation)

  1. thatnot (introduces a negative noun clause)
    Mae e’n dweud na fydd e’n mynd.
    He says that he will not go.
Usage notes edit
  • Triggers mixed mutation (i.e. aspirate of p, t, c and soft of remaining mutatable letters) of a following consonant.
  • The form nad is used before a vowel. When the following consonant is g, which disappears under soft mutation, the form na remains, thus na + gallan becomes naallan, not *nad allan.
  • The form is always nad before an element fronted for emphasis.
Alternative forms edit
  • nad (used before a vowel, or where an element is fronted for emphasis)
See also edit
  • y (affirmative)

Etymology 2 edit

Variant of no(g),[2] probably from rebracketing of the comparative “*-achn o” as “-ach no”.[3]

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

na (triggers aspirate mutation)

  1. than
  2. neither, nor
Alternative forms edit
  • nag (used before a vowel)

Etymology 3 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

na

  1. Soft mutation of gna.

Verb edit

na (not mutable)

  1. first-person singular future colloquial of gwneud

Mutation edit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
gna na ngna unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Etymology 4 edit

Adjective edit

na

  1. Nasal mutation of da.

Noun edit

na

  1. Nasal mutation of da.

Mutation edit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
da dda na unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References edit

  1. ^ R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “na”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies
  2. ^ R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “no”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies
  3. ^ Morris Jones, John (1913) A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative, Oxford: Clarendon Press, §§ 113 i (1), 147 iv (3)

Xhosa edit

Etymology 1 edit

Particle edit

  1. Interrogative particle; indicates a yes-no question. Placed at the end of the sentence.

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Bantu *-nɪ̀a.

Verb edit

-na

  1. (intransitive) to rain
Inflection edit

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Ye'kwana edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

na

  1. (transitive) to clear (a conuco garden)
  2. (transitive) to clear (brush)

References edit

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011), “na”, in Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana, Lyon
  • Hall, Katherine Lee (1988) The morphosyntax of discourse in De'kwana Carib, volume I and II, Saint Louis, Missouri: PhD Thesis, Washington University, page 315

Yola edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English na, from nan (none), from Old English nān. Cognates include English no and Scots nae.

Alternative forms edit

Determiner edit

na

  1. no
    • 1867, “A YOLA ZONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 10, page 88:
      T' brek up ee bathès h' had na poustee;
      To break up the goal they had not power;
    • 1867, “ABOUT AN OLD SOW GOING TO BE KILLED”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 2, page 106:
      Na speen to be multh, nar flaase to be shaure.
      no teat to be milked, nor fleece to be shorn.
    • 1867, “ABOUT AN OLD SOW GOING TO BE KILLED”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 2, page 106:
      Vear'd nodhing mot Portheare. Na skeine e'er ee-waare.
      I feared nothing but Porter. No skein I ever wore.

Particle edit

na

  1. no

Etymology 2 edit

Interjection edit

na

  1. Alternative form of naay
    • 1867, “A YOLA ZONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 9, page 88:
      Na, now or neveare! w' cry't t' Tommeen,
      Nay, now or never! we cry'd to Tommy,

Etymology 3 edit

Adverb edit

na

  1. Alternative form of no (not)
    • 1867, GLOSSARY OF THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 34:
      Na dicke wye, nar dicka.
      Neither this way, nor that.
    • 1867, “CASTEALE CUDDE'S LAMENTATION”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 4, page 104:
      Hea pryet ich mought na ha chicke or hen,
      He prayed I might not have chicken nor hen,
    • 1867, “BIT OF DIALOGUE”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 111:
      Caulès will na get to wullaw to-die.
      Horses will not get to wallow to-day.

Etymology 4 edit

Borrowed from Irish na.

Article edit

na

  1. of the
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 114, lines 3-4:
      na coshe an loyale dwellerès na Baronie Forthe,
      both (the) faithful and loyal inhabitants of the Barony of Forth,
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 114, lines 4-5:
      crave na dicke luckie acte t'uck neicher th' Eccellencie,
      beg leave at (of) this favourable opportunity to approach your Excellency,
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 116, lines 10-11:
      az Irishmen, an az dwellerès na cosh an loyale o' Baronie Forthe,
      as Irishmen, and as inhabitants, (of) faithful and loyal, of the Barony Forth,
  2. in the
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 114, lines 5-6:
      an na plaine garbe o' oure yola talke,
      and in the simple dress of our old dialect,
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 114, lines 16-18:
      y'ast, bie ractzom o'honde, ee-delt t'ouz ye laas ee-mate var ercha vassale, ne'er dwythen na dicke waie nar dicka.
      you have with impartial hand ministered the laws made for every subject, without regard to this party or that.
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 116, lines 1-2:
      Ye state na dicke daie o'ye londe, na whilke be nar fash nar moile, albiet 'constitutional agitation,'
      The condition, (on) this day, of the country, in which is neither tumult nor disorder, but that constitutional agitation,
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 116, lines 6-8:
      Na oure gladès ana whilke we dellt wi' mattoke, an zing t'oure caulès wi plou,
      In our valleys where we were digging with the spade, or as we whistled to our horses in the plough,
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, page 116, lines 8-9:
      wee hert ee zough o'ye colure o' pace na name o' Mulgrave.
      we heard the distant sound of the wings of the dove of peace, in the word Mulgrave.

References edit

  • Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, page 58

Yoruba edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (high-tone): IPA(key): /nã́/
  • (mid-tone): IPA(key): /nã̄/
  • (low-tone): IPA(key): /nã̀/

Etymology 1 edit

Verb edit

  1. to beat; to hit; to smack
    Synonym:
    Ó án ní pàṣánShe beat him with a whip
  2. to defeat
    Synonym: borí
Usage notes edit
  • na before a direct object.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Verb edit

  1. to spend
    Synonym: náwó (to spend money)
    Àníkẹ́ ń owó nínàákúkàáAnike is spending money extravagently
  2. to cost
    Ó mi ní ogún náírà péréIt only cost me 20 naira
    Ó lè máa wọn tó ẹgbẹ̀rún dọ́làIt may cost them up to a thousand dollars
  3. to haggle; to bargain
    Synonyms: yọwó, nájà
    Ìyá mi ń bá oníkiri My mother's haggling with the hawker
    1. to trade; to go to the market
      Synonym: nájà
      Mo ọjà Mọ́kọ́láI trade at Mokola market
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Verb edit

  1. to stretch; to raise
    Mo na ọwọ́ mi dì í múI stretched out my hand to grasp it
    Àwòdì na ìyẹ́ rẹ̀, kí ó sì fò lọThe hawk spread its wings and flew away
  2. to aim; to point
    Ọlọ́pàá na ìbọn sí wọn lójúThe police pointed a gun in their face
Usage notes edit
  • na before a direct object.
Derived terms edit
  • nàka (to point one's finger)
  • nasẹ̀ (to introduce)
  • nawọ́ (to stretch one's hand)
  • nàyìn (to stretch one's back)

Zaghawa edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

na

  1. you (singular); thou
    Na dô neygini? : Are you tired?

References edit

Zhuang edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Tai *ʰnaːᴬ (thick). Cognate with Thai หนา (nǎa), Lao ໜາ (), ᦐᦱ (ṅaa), Shan ၼႃ (nǎa), Ahom 𑜃𑜡 (), Bouyei nal.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

na (Sawndip forms 𭆗 or or 𭡇 or 𦀨, 1957–1982 spelling na)

  1. thick (with opposite surfaces far apart)
    Antonym: mbang
  2. (of vegetation) dense; thick

Zia edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Trans-New Guinea *na. Cognate to Blagar na.

Pronoun edit

na

  1. I (first person pronoun singular)

Zou edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Kuki-Chin *naa, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na. Cognates include Tibetan (na) and Burmese နာ (na).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

na

  1. ill

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Kuki-Chin *hnaar, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-na. Cognates include Tibetan སྣ (sna) and Burmese နှာ (hna).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

na

  1. nose

References edit

  • Lukram Himmat Singh (2013) A Descriptive Grammar of Zou, Canchipur: Manipur University, pages 40, 47

Zulu edit

Etymology 1 edit

Possibly from na-.

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

na

  1. Interrogative particle; indicates a yes-no question. Placed at the end of the sentence.

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Bantu *-nɪ̀a.

Pronunciation edit

IPA(key): /na/

Verb edit

-na

  1. (intransitive) to rain
Inflection edit
Tone L
Infinitive ukuna
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukuna ukungani
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular yina -ne
Plural yinani -neni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyana, ngina enginayo, engina ngina angini engingani ngingani
2nd singular uyana, una onayo, ona una awuni ongani ungani
1st plural siyana, sina esinayo, esina sina asini esingani singani
2nd plural niyana, nina eninayo, enina nina anini eningani ningani
Class 1 uyana, una onayo, ona ena akani ongani engani
Class 2 bayana, bana abanayo, abana bena abani abangani bengani
Class 3 uyana, una onayo, ona una awuni ongani ungani
Class 4 iyana, ina enayo, ena ina ayini engani ingani
Class 5 liyana, lina elinayo, elina lina alini elingani lingani
Class 6 ayana, ana anayo, ana ena awani angani engani
Class 7 siyana, sina esinayo, esina sina asini esingani singani
Class 8 ziyana, zina ezinayo, ezina zina azini ezingani zingani
Class 9 iyana, ina enayo, ena ina ayini engani ingani
Class 10 ziyana, zina ezinayo, ezina zina azini ezingani zingani
Class 11 luyana, luna olunayo, oluna luna aluni olungani lungani
Class 14 buyana, buna obunayo, obuna buna abuni obungani bungani
Class 15 kuyana, kuna okunayo, okuna kuna akuni okungani kungani
Class 17 kuyana, kuna okunayo, okuna kuna akuni okungani kungani
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular nginile, nginē enginile, enginē nginile, nginē anginanga engingananga ngingananga
2nd singular unile, unē onile, onē unile, unē awunanga ongananga ungananga
1st plural sinile, sinē esinile, esinē sinile, sinē asinanga esingananga singananga
2nd plural ninile, ninē eninile, eninē ninile, ninē aninanga eningananga ningananga
Class 1 unile, unē onile, onē enile, enē akananga ongananga engananga
Class 2 banile, banē abanile, abanē benile, benē abananga abangananga bengananga
Class 3 unile, unē onile, onē unile, unē awunanga ongananga ungananga
Class 4 inile, inē enile, enē inile, inē ayinanga engananga ingananga
Class 5 linile, linē elinile, elinē linile, linē alinanga elingananga lingananga
Class 6 anile, anē anile, anē enile, enē awananga angananga engananga
Class 7 sinile, sinē esinile, esinē sinile, sinē asinanga esingananga singananga
Class 8 zinile, zinē ezinile, ezinē zinile, zinē azinanga ezingananga zingananga
Class 9 inile, inē enile, enē inile, inē ayinanga engananga ingananga
Class 10 zinile, zinē ezinile, ezinē zinile, zinē azinanga ezingananga zingananga
Class 11 lunile, lunē olunile, olunē lunile, lunē alunanga olungananga lungananga
Class 14 bunile, bunē obunile, obunē bunile, bunē abunanga obungananga bungananga
Class 15 kunile, kunē okunile, okunē kunile, kunē akunanga okungananga kungananga
Class 17 kunile, kunē okunile, okunē kunile, kunē akunanga okungananga kungananga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāna engāna ngāna anginanga engingananga ngingananga
2nd singular wāna owāna wāna awunanga ongananga ungananga
1st plural sāna esāna sāna asinanga esingananga singananga
2nd plural nāna enāna nāna aninanga eningananga ningananga
Class 1 wāna owāna āna akananga ongananga engananga
Class 2 bāna abāna bāna abananga abangananga bengananga
Class 3 wāna owāna wāna awunanga ongananga ungananga
Class 4 yāna eyāna yāna ayinanga engananga ingananga
Class 5 lāna elāna lāna alinanga elingananga lingananga
Class 6 āna āna āna awananga angananga engananga
Class 7 sāna esāna sāna asinanga esingananga singananga
Class 8 zāna ezāna zāna azinanga ezingananga zingananga
Class 9 yāna eyāna yāna ayinanga engananga ingananga
Class 10 zāna ezāna zāna azinanga ezingananga zingananga
Class 11 lwāna olwāna lwāna alunanga olungananga lungananga
Class 14 bāna obāna bāna abunanga obungananga bungananga
Class 15 kwāna okwāna kwāna akunanga okungananga kungananga
Class 17 kwāna okwāna kwāna akunanga okungananga kungananga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingana ngingana ngingene ngingene
2nd singular ungana ungana ungene ungene
1st plural singana singana singene singene
2nd plural ningana ningana ningene ningene
Class 1 angana engana angene engene
Class 2 bangana bengana bangene bengene
Class 3 ungana ungana ungene ungene
Class 4 ingana ingana ingene ingene
Class 5 lingana lingana lingene lingene
Class 6 angana engana angene engene
Class 7 singana singana singene singene
Class 8 zingana zingana zingene zingene
Class 9 ingana ingana ingene ingene
Class 10 zingana zingana zingene zingene
Class 11 lungana lungana lungene lungene
Class 14 bungana bungana bungene bungene
Class 15 kungana kungana kungene kungene
Class 17 kungana kungana kungene kungene
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizokuna engizokuna ngizokuna angizukuna engingezukuna ngingezukuna
2nd singular uzokuna ozokuna uzokuna awuzukuna ongezukuna ungezukuna
1st plural sizokuna esizokuna sizokuna asizukuna esingezukuna singezukuna
2nd plural nizokuna enizokuna nizokuna anizukuna eningezukuna ningezukuna
Class 1 uzokuna ozokuna ezokuna akazukuna ongezukuna engezukuna
Class 2 bazokuna abazokuna bezokuna abazukuna abangezukuna bengezukuna
Class 3 uzokuna ozokuna uzokuna awuzukuna ongezukuna ungezukuna
Class 4 izokuna ezokuna izokuna ayizukuna engezukuna ingezukuna
Class 5 lizokuna elizokuna lizokuna alizukuna elingezukuna lingezukuna
Class 6 azokuna azokuna ezokuna awazukuna angezukuna engezukuna
Class 7 sizokuna esizokuna sizokuna asizukuna esingezukuna singezukuna
Class 8 zizokuna ezizokuna zizokuna azizukuna ezingezukuna zingezukuna
Class 9 izokuna ezokuna izokuna ayizukuna engezukuna ingezukuna
Class 10 zizokuna ezizokuna zizokuna azizukuna ezingezukuna zingezukuna
Class 11 luzokuna oluzokuna luzokuna aluzukuna olungezukuna lungezukuna
Class 14 buzokuna obuzokuna buzokuna abuzukuna obungezukuna bungezukuna
Class 15 kuzokuna okuzokuna kuzokuna akuzukuna okungezukuna kungezukuna
Class 17 kuzokuna okuzokuna kuzokuna akuzukuna okungezukuna kungezukuna
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyokuna engiyokuna ngiyokuna angiyukuna engingeyukuna ngingeyukuna
2nd singular uyokuna oyokuna uyokuna awuyukuna ongeyukuna ungeyukuna
1st plural siyokuna esiyokuna siyokuna asiyukuna esingeyukuna singeyukuna
2nd plural niyokuna eniyokuna niyokuna aniyukuna eningeyukuna ningeyukuna
Class 1 uyokuna oyokuna eyokuna akayukuna ongeyukuna engeyukuna
Class 2 bayokuna abayokuna beyokuna abayukuna abangeyukuna bengeyukuna
Class 3 uyokuna oyokuna uyokuna awuyukuna ongeyukuna ungeyukuna
Class 4 iyokuna eyokuna iyokuna ayiyukuna engeyukuna ingeyukuna
Class 5 liyokuna eliyokuna liyokuna aliyukuna elingeyukuna lingeyukuna
Class 6 ayokuna ayokuna eyokuna awayukuna angeyukuna engeyukuna
Class 7 siyokuna esiyokuna siyokuna asiyukuna esingeyukuna singeyukuna
Class 8 ziyokuna eziyokuna ziyokuna aziyukuna ezingeyukuna zingeyukuna
Class 9 iyokuna eyokuna iyokuna ayiyukuna engeyukuna ingeyukuna
Class 10 ziyokuna eziyokuna ziyokuna aziyukuna ezingeyukuna zingeyukuna
Class 11 luyokuna oluyokuna luyokuna aluyukuna olungeyukuna lungeyukuna
Class 14 buyokuna obuyokuna buyokuna abuyukuna obungeyukuna bungeyukuna
Class 15 kuyokuna okuyokuna kuyokuna akuyukuna okungeyukuna kungeyukuna
Class 17 kuyokuna okuyokuna kuyokuna akuyukuna okungeyukuna kungeyukuna
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngine ngingani
2nd singular une ungani
1st plural sine singani
2nd plural nine ningani
Class 1 ane angani
Class 2 bane bangani
Class 3 une ungani
Class 4 ine ingani
Class 5 line lingani
Class 6 ane angani
Class 7 sine singani
Class 8 zine zingani
Class 9 ine ingani
Class 10 zine zingani
Class 11 lune lungani
Class 14 bune bungani
Class 15 kune kungani
Class 17 kune kungani
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngana ngangana, angana, angangana
2nd singular wana wangana, awana, awangana
1st plural sana sangana, asana, asangana
2nd plural nana nangana, anana, anangana
Class 1 wana wangana, akana, akangana
Class 2 bana bangana, abana, abangana
Class 3 wana wangana, awana, awangana
Class 4 yana yangana, ayana, ayangana
Class 5 lana langana, alana, alangana
Class 6 ana angana, awana, awangana
Class 7 sana sangana, asana, asangana
Class 8 zana zangana, azana, azangana
Class 9 yana yangana, ayana, ayangana
Class 10 zana zangana, azana, azangana
Class 11 lwana lwangana, alwana, alwangana
Class 14 bana bangana, abana, abangana
Class 15 kwana kwangana, akwana, akwangana
Class 17 kwana kwangana, akwana, akwangana

See also edit

References edit