Reconstruction:Proto-West Germanic/ga-

This Proto-West Germanic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-West GermanicEdit


From Proto-Germanic *ga-.



  1. used as an intensifier for verbs, indicating completeness or perfectivity
  2. forms nouns or adjectives of association or similarity; co-
  3. forms nouns and verbs with the sense of "result" or "process"
  4. forms past participles or participle adjectives from verbs

Reconstruction notesEdit

Because of its perfective sense, it eventually became used as a marker of the past participle in the West Germanic languages.

Derived termsEdit


  • Old English: ġe-
    • Middle English: ȝe-, i-, y-
      • English: a-, y-, i- (obsolete)
  • Old Frisian: ge-, e-
  • Old Saxon: gi-, ge-, ga-
  • Old Dutch: gi-, ge-
  • Old High German: gi-, ga-, ki-, ka-
    • Middle High German: ge-
      • Alemannic German: g- or ge- (euphonic)
      • German: ge-
      • Luxembourgish: ge-
      • Vilamovian: gy-
      • Yiddish: גע־(ge-)


  1. ^ Ringe, Donald; Taylor, Ann (2014) The Development of Old English (A Linguistic History of English; 2), Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 206: “PWGmc. *ga-”