- used as an intensifier for verbs, indicating completeness or perfectivity
- forms nouns or adjectives of association or similarity; co-
- forms nouns and verbs with the sense of "result" or "process"
- forms past participles or participle adjectives from verbs
Because of its perfective sense, it eventually became used as a marker of the past participle in the West Germanic languages.
- Old English: ġe-
- Old Frisian: ge-, e-
- Old Saxon: gi-, ge-, ga-
- Old Dutch: gi-, ge-
- Old High German: gi-, ga-, ki-, ka-