Afrikaans

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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Inherited from Dutch ge-, from Middle Dutch ge-, ghe-, from Old Dutch gi-, ge-, from Proto-Germanic *ga-, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm.

Prefix

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ge-

  1. Used to form the past participle
    Ek het die koek geëet — I have eaten the cake.
Usage notes
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  • The participle prefix ge- is not used before the verbal prefixes be-, er-, ver-, ont- and her-, nor with inseparable prefixed adverbs or prepositions, except in a few exceptional cases or very colloquial speech.
  • For verbs with the suffix -eer, the participle prefix may be optionally omitted. This is more commonly done for more common, disyllabic verbs and for participles in the active voice. It is seldom used in this way in the passive voice or with attributive past participles.
  • In continuous constructs of the type sit en lees, loop en sing, lê en slaap and staan en gesels, the participle prefix may be optionally used on the first of such a verb pair. It is never used for the second verb of the pair.

Etymology 2

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Inherited from Dutch ge-, from Middle Dutch ge-.

Prefix

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ge-

  1. Used with a verb stem to create an uncountable noun referring to an action or its result, seen as a single collective whole.
Usage notes
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  • The deverbal prefix ge- is not used before the verbal prefixes be-, er-, ver-, ont- and her-, nor with inseparable prefixed adverbs or prepositions, except in a few exceptional cases or very colloquial speech.

Dutch

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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Inherited from Middle Dutch ge-, ghe-, from Old Dutch gi-, ge-, from Proto-West Germanic *ga-, from Proto-Germanic *ga-, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm.

Cognate with German Low German ge-, Dutch Low Saxon ge-, German ge-, Old English ġe- (obsolete English y-, i-, a-), Gothic 𐌲𐌰- (ga-).

Prefix

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ge-

  1. Used for forming the past participle.
  2. (obsolete, no longer productive) Forms perfective verbs from other verbs with a sense of completeness, or simply as an intensifier.
Usage notes
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  • The participle prefix ge- is not used before the verbal prefixes be-, er-, ver-, ont- and her-, nor with inseparable prefixed adverbs or prepositions.
Derived terms
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Category Dutch terms prefixed with ge- (perfective) not found

Etymology 2

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From the prefix above with an 'empty' suffix originating from Old Dutch *-i, from Proto-Germanic *-ją.

Prefix

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ge-

  1. Used with a verb stem to create a neuter uncountable noun referring to an action or its result, seen as a single collective whole. Comparable to English -ing (although that forms countable nouns, as it does in Dutch).
Usage notes
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  • The deverbal prefix ge- is not used before the verbal prefixes be-, er-, ver-, ont- and her-, nor with inseparable prefixed adverbs or prepositions.
  • Sometimes, especially in older formations, shows the effect of ablaut, as in gelag (from liggen).
Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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Prefix

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ge-

  1. See ge- -te.

See also

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Esperanto

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Etymology

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Derived from German ge-. The German prefix is used to form collective nouns, but generally has nothing to do with gender. However, there is one word in which the force of German ge- is very similar to that in Esperanto, namely Geschwister, a plurale tantum derived from Schwester (sister) but meaning “siblings of either sex”. The Esperanto use might be based chiefly on this word.

Pronunciation

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  • Audio:(file)

Prefix

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ge-

  1. (plural only) used with a plural (gendered) noun to indicate multiple genders together
    ge- + ‎patro (father) → ‎gepatroj (mother(s) and father(s))
    ge- + ‎frato (brother) → ‎gefratoj (sister(s) and brother(s))
    ge- + ‎nepo (grandson) → ‎genepoj (granddaughter(s) and grandson(s))
    ge- + ‎avo (grandfather) → ‎geavoj (grandmother(s) and grandfather(s))
  2. (unoffically, by extension) used with a gendered noun to indicate unspecified gender
    patro (father)gepatroj (parents)gepatro (a parent)
    frato (brother)gefratoj (siblings)gefrato (a sibling)
    nepo (grandson)genepoj (grandchildren)genepo (a grandchild)
    avo (grandfather)geavoj (grandparents)geavo (a grandparent)
  3. (unoffically, by extension, often humorous) with or among mixed genders
    lernejo (school)gelernejo (co-educational school)
    ĝui (enjoy)geĝui (to have fun (in a mixed-gender group); to have (heterosexual) sex) (jocular)

Derived terms

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Garo

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Classifier

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ge-

  1. classifier for any object which does not have a special classifer for itself

German

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Alternative forms

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  • je- (Berlinian)

Etymology

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Inherited from Middle High German ge-, from Old High German ga-, gi-, from Proto-West Germanic *ga-, from Proto-Germanic *ga-, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm.

Cognate with Low German ge-, e-, je- (Ermländisch), Yiddish גע־ (ge-), Dutch ge-, Old English ġe- (obsolete English y-, i-, a-), Gothic 𐌲𐌰- (ga-).

Pronunciation

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Prefix

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ge-

  1. Forms collective nouns, almost always neuter gender. Whenever possible, the root vowel is modified as well.
    ge- + ‎Ader (vein) → ‎Geäder (veins collectively)
    ge- + ‎Ast (branch) → ‎Geäst (all the branches of a tree)
    ge- + ‎Berg (mountain) → ‎Gebirge (mountain range)
    ge- + ‎Busch (bush) → ‎Gebüsch (brush)
    ge- + ‎Rippe (rib) → ‎Gerippe (skeleton)
    ge- + ‎Stein (stone) → ‎Gestein (rock)
    ge- + ‎Strauch (bush, shrub) → ‎Gesträuch (shrubbery)
    ge- + ‎Wasser (water) → ‎Gewässer (body of water)
    ge- + ‎Wolke (cloud) → ‎Gewölk (cloud formation) (modern: Wolkenformation)
  2. Forms action nouns, usually with a sense of repetition or continuation. All of these nouns are neuter and have no plural.
    ge- + ‎ächzen (groan (verb)) → ‎Geächze (groan (noun))
    ge- + ‎heulen (to cry like a wolf) → ‎Geheule (the howl of a wolf)
    ge- + ‎reden (talk) → ‎Gerede (chatter)
    ge- + ‎seufzen (sigh (verb)) → ‎Geseufze (sigh (noun))
  3. Forms nomina rei actae, verbal nouns that refer to the result of an action, always of neuter gender.
    ge- + ‎schenken (to gift) → ‎Geschenk (gift)
    ge- + ‎legen (to lay) → ‎Gelege (clutch of eggs)
    ge- + ‎prägen (to stamp a coin) → ‎Gepräge (the pattern on a coin)
  4. Forms past participles in combination with a suffix -en or -(e)t. Nouns are frequently made from the past participle.
    ge- + ‎schlafen (to sleep) → ‎geschlafen (slept)
    ge- + ‎denken (to think) → ‎gedacht (thought)
    ge- + ‎retten (to rescue, save) → ‎gerettet (rescued, saved)
  5. Forms verbs with terminative aktionsart. This is hardly productive after Early New High German and outside of dialects.
    ge- + ‎leiten (to lead) → ‎geleiten (to escort)
    ge- + ‎nießen (to use) → ‎genießen (to enjoy)
    ge- + ‎Middle High German bëren (to bear, carry) → ‎gebären (to give birth)
    ge- + ‎langen (to reach for) → ‎gelangen (to achieve)
  6. Indicates association or togetherness; co-.
    ge- + ‎Brüder (brothers) → ‎Gebrüder (Brothers) For example, Gebrüder Grimm, the Brothers Grimm.
    ge- + ‎Fahrt (journey) → ‎Gefährte (fellow-travellers)

Synonyms

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(past participle):

  • ge- -en (different analysis or view)
  • ge- -t (different analysis or view)
  • -t (for verbs not stressed on the very first syllable)

Derived terms

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Further reading

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  • J. C. Adelung (1796) “ge-”, in Grammatisch-kritisches Wörterbuch der Hochdeutschen Mundart (in German), 2nd edition, volume 2, page 439
  • Jörg Meibauer, Ulrike Demske, Jochen Geilfuß-Wolfgang, Jürgen Pafel, Karl Heinz Ramers, Monika Rothweiler and Markus Steinbach, Einführung in die germanistische Linguistik, 2nd edition, 2007, p. 32: "[..] Zirkumfixe [...] ge...t bei schwachen Verben und ge...en bei starken Verben (z. B. gespielt, gelaufen)"
  • Michael Schäfer and Werner Schäfke, Sprachwissenschaft für Skandinavisten: Eine Einführung, Narr Verlag, 2014, p. 110: "Zirkumfix-Ableitungen [...]:   [..] dt. spiel-en > ge-spiel-t   Das lexikalische Morphem {spiel} wird hier umschlossen vom Zirkumfix {ge- -t}, um das Partizip der Vergangenheit zu bilden."

Etymology

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Derived from Esperanto ge-, from German ge-.

Prefix

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ge-

  1. prefix used with the plural to indicate both sexes together
    avi (grandparents, grandfathers and/or grandmothers)geavi (grandfathers and grandmothers)

Derived terms

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Limburgish

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Etymology

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From earlier gè-, from Middle Dutch ge-, ghe-, from Old Dutch gi-, ge-, from Proto-Germanic *ga-, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm. Cognate with Old Saxon gi- (Low German e-, ge-), Dutch ge-, Old English ġe-, Gothic 𐌲𐌰- (ga-).

Prefix

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ge-

  1. When used in combination with the suffix -dje, forms neuter collective nouns.
  2. When attached to verbal nouns, forms nouns denoting repetition or continuation. All of these nouns are neuter and have no plural. For example: kalle/gekal.
  3. Forms past participles of verbs: wèrke/gewèrk.
  4. Used as an intensifier for verbs. wèrke/gewèrke.

Ojibwe

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Preverb

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ge-

  1. form of da- or daa- used in the changed conjunct order

References

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Old English

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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    Inherited from Proto-West Germanic *ga-, from Proto-Germanic *ga-, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm. Cognate with Latin cum (with).

    Pronunciation

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    Prefix

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    ġe-

    1. used as an intensifier for verbs, indicating completeness or perfection
    2. forms nouns or adjectives of association or similarity; co-
    3. forms nouns and verbs with the sense of "result" or "process"
    4. forms past participles or participle adjectives from verbs

    Usage notes

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    • This prefix was always unstressed, in both nouns and verbs.

    Derived terms

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    Descendants

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    • Middle English: ȝe-, i-, y-
      • English: a-, y-, i- (obsolete)

    Old Saxon

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    Prefix

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    ge-

    1. Alternative form of gi-