Translingual edit

Etymology edit

From the Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-, not, without).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. Used to form taxonomic names indicating a lack of some feature that might be expected

Derived terms edit

English edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English a- (up, out, away), from Old English ā-, originally *ar-, *or-, from Proto-West Germanic *uʀ-, from Proto-Germanic *uz- (out-), from Proto-Indo-European *uds- (up, out). Cognate with Old Saxon a-, German er-.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ə/
  • (file)

Prefix edit

a-

  1. (no longer productive) Forming verbs with the sense away, up, on, out.
    arise, await
  2. (no longer productive) Forming verbs with the sense of intensified action.
    abide, amaze

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. (rare or no longer productive) In, on, at; used to show a state, condition, or manner. Also passing into sense 2. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    apace, afire, aboil, a-bling
  2. (no longer productive) In, into. Also passing into sense 5. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    asunder
  3. In the direction of, or toward. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    astern, abeam
  4. (archaic, dialectal) At such a time. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    Come a-morning we are going hunting.
  5. (archaic, dialectal) In the act or process of. Used in some dialects before a present participle. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    hits a-poppin
    doins a-transpirin [doings a-transpiring]
    • 1780, The Twelve Days of Christmas:
      The twelfth day of Christmas,
      My true love sent to me
      Twelve lords a-leaping,
      Eight maids a-milking,
      Seven swans a-swimming,
      Six geese a-laying,
    • circa 1850, Here We Come A-wassailing/Here We Come A-caroling
      Here we come a-wassailing
      Among the leaves so green;
      Here we come a-wand’ring
      So fair to be seen.
    • 1939, Alfred Edward Housman, Additional Poems, XIII, lines 6-7:
      Oh waste no words a-wooing
      The soft sleep to your bed;
    • 1964, Bob Dylan, "The Times They Are a-Changin' " (recorded 1963, released 1964):
      The order is rapidly fadin'
      And the first one now will later be last
      For the times they are a-changin'
    • circa 1970, bumper sticker:[2]
      If the van’s a-rockin’, don’t come a-knockin’.

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle English a-, a variant form of y-, from Old English ġe-, from Proto-West Germanic *ga-, from Proto-Germanic *ga-, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm (with).

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. Alternative form of y- (archaic and dialectal) In dialect, it is sometimes conflated with sense 5 of the previous definition, and is used as a general indicator of a participle. [First attested around 1150 to 1350 (Middle English).][1]
    aware, alike
  2. (Devon) Used to form the past participle of a verb.
    I have a-gone.
    I have a-seen a bird.

Etymology 4 edit

From Anglo-Norman a-, from Old French e-, from Latin ex-.

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. (no longer productive) Forming words with the sense of wholly, or utterly out. [First attested from around 1150 to 1350.][1]
    abash

Etymology 5 edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately followed by a vowel).

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. Not, without, opposite of.
    amoral, asymmetry, atheism, asexual, acyclic, atypical
    • 1948 (revised 1952), Robert Graves, The White Goddess, Faber & Faber 1999, page 7:
      When invited to believe in the Chimaera, the horse-centaurs, or the winged horse Pegasus, all of them straightforward Pelasgian cult-symbols, a philosopher felt bound to reject them as a-zoölogical improbabilities [...].
    • 2012, Faramerz Dabhoiwala, The Origins of Sex, Penguin, published 2013, page 191:
      If aroused outside the proper outlet of marriage, [female lust] could range out of control, turning its possessor into an a-feminine monster: that is what happened to fallen women.
Usage notes edit
  • This prefix is referred to as alpha privative.
  • Used with stems that begin with consonants except sometimes h. an- is synonymous and is used in front of words that start with vowels and sometimes h.[3] For example, anesthetic and analgesic.
Synonyms edit
Translations edit

Etymology 6 edit

From Middle English a-, from Middle French a-, from Latin ad (towards).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. (no longer productive) Towards; Used to indicate direction, reduction to, increase to, change into, or motion. [First attested from around 1150 to 1350.][1]
    ascend, aspire, amass, abandon, avenue
Usage notes edit
  • Used on stems that started with sc, sp, or st, and also used on stems with a French origin.
  • Used in place of ad-.[4]

Etymology 7 edit

From Latin ab (of, off, from, away).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. (no longer productive) Away from. [First attested from around 1150 to 1350.][1]
    avert, aperient, abridge, assoil,[3] assoilzie
Usage notes edit
  • Variation of the prefix ab-, only used when the stem starts with the letter p or v, [3] or (rarely) s in which case the s is doubled (as in assoil and assoilzie).

Etymology 8 edit

From Middle English a-, o- (of). See a (preposition, of).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. (no longer productive) Of, from. [First attested prior to 1150.][1]
    anew, afresh, athirst[3]
Usage notes edit

Different Germanic and Latinate senses of a- became confused (vaguely “intensive") and are all unproductive. The Greek sense of “not” (e.g., amoral, asymmetry) remains in use.

“[I]t naturally happened that all these a- prefixes were at length confusedly lumped together in idea, and the resultant a- looked upon as vaguely intensive, rhetorical, euphonic [nice-sounding], or even archaic, and wholly otiose [pointless].” OED.
Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 Brown, Lesley (2003)
  2. ^ See “Don’t Come A-Knockin’”, TV Tropes for more examples and discussion.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Urdang, Laurence (1984)
  4. ^ Lindberg, Christine A. (2007)

Etymology 9 edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. Alternative form of -a (empty syllable added to songs, poetry, verse and other speech)

Etymology 10 edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. (Chester) Used as a prefix to verbs in the sense of remaining in the same condition.[1] Actively doing something.
    a-be, a-going
    Let that choilt a-be, wilt ta.Let that child alone, will you.[1]

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Robert Holland, M.R.A.C., A Glossary of Words Used in the County of Chester, Part I--A to F., English Dialect Society, London, 1884, 1

A-Pucikwar edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. prefix attached to words relating to the mouth, such as the names of languages

Catalan edit

Etymology 1 edit

Borrowed from Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. a- (not, without)
    a- + ‎moral (moral) → ‎amoral (amoral)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Latin ad (towards).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. used to make verbs from adjectives and nouns
    a- + ‎feble (weak) → ‎afeblir (to weaken)
    a- + ‎sabor (taste) → ‎assaborir (to taste)
Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Danish edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. a-, un- (not)
  2. A- (atomic, nuclear)
    Synonyms: atom-, A-

Derived terms edit

Dutch edit

Etymology edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel).

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. a-: Not, without, opposite of.

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Esperanto edit

Etymology edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. without, -less

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

Internationalism (see English a-), ultimately from Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-).

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. (in loanwords) a-, non-, un-
    Synonym: epä-

French edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Old French a-, from Latin ad-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. A prefix forming words, especially verbs, that denote entering a state, making progress toward a goal, or the like.

Etymology 2 edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel; generalized from the many Latin borrowings using this prefix.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. a-, non-, -less

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Galician edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese a-, from Latin ad-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. added to adjective X, forms verbs meaning to make/turn X
    a- + ‎curto (short) + ‎-ar → ‎acurtar (to shorten)
  2. added to noun X, forms verbs meaning to cause or make X or to cause something to have X
    a- + ‎fervor (passion) + ‎-ar → ‎afervoar (to excite)

Etymology 2 edit

Borrowed from Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. a- (not; without)
    Synonym: in-

Derived terms edit

German edit

Etymology edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel).

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. a- (not, without, opposite of)

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • a-” in Duden online
  • a-” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Indonesian edit

Etymology edit

From Sanskrit अ- (a-, un-, not), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *a-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. a- (not, without, opposite of)

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Irish edit

Alternative forms edit

  • ai- (before a palatalized consonant, both etymologies)

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately followed by a vowel).

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. a- (not, without, opposite of)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. Alternative form of ath- used before t

Italian edit

 
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia it

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Latin ad-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. ad- (indicating direction)
Usage notes edit

Etymology 2 edit

Borrowed from Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. a- (indicating lack or loss)
Alternative forms edit
  • an- (before a vowel)

Derived terms edit

Latin edit

Etymology 1 edit

Prefix edit

ā-

  1. Alternative form of ab-
Usage notes edit

Used before bilabial voiced consonants: b-, m- and v-.

Etymology 2 edit

From ad (towards).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. (Before a word beginning with sc, sp or st) Alternative form of ad-
    a- + ‎scandere (climb) → ‎ascendere (climb up, go up; rise, spring up)
    a- + ‎scrībere (write) → ‎ascrībere (state in writing, add in writing; insert; appoint, enroll, enfranchise, reckon, number)
    a- + ‎spīrāre (breathe) → ‎aspīrāre (breathe or blow upon; am favorable to, assist, favor, aid; aspire or desire (to); approach, come near (to))
    a- + ‎specere (observe, look at) → ‎aspicere (look at or towards, behold; regard, respect; observe, notice; examine, inspect; consider, ponder)
    a- + ‎stringere (press, tighten, compress) → ‎astringere (draw close, bind or tie together; tighten, contract; check, restrain; oblige, necessitate)
    a- + ‎struere (compose, construct, build; ready, prepare; place, arrange) → ‎astruere (build near or to a thing, erect; build on, heap; build an additional structure)

Latvian edit

Etymology edit

Via other European languages, ultimately from Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel).

Pronunciation edit

(file)

Prefix edit

a-

  1. Not, not having, without, opposite of.
    a- + ‎seksuāls → ‎aseksuāls

Mohawk edit

Alternative forms edit

  • aon- (before s- (iterative) and t- (cislocative))

Prefix edit

a-

  1. irrealis prefix

References edit

  • Nora Deering; Helga H. Delisle (1976) Mohawk: A teaching grammar (preliminary version), Quebec: Manitou College, page 332

Murui Huitoto edit

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. (unproductive) Used to form a few adverbs signifying a location or motion from or to above.

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

References edit

  • Katarzyna Izabela Wojtylak (2017) A grammar of Murui (Bue): a Witotoan language of Northwest Amazonia.[1], Townsville: James Cook University press (PhD thesis), page 145

Navajo edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. someone's, people's

Usage notes edit

This prefix is often used as a neutral possessive pronoun to make the citation forms of inalienable nouns: amá (someone's mother), akʼos (someone's neck), ajáád (someone's leg), ajááʼ (someone's ear), akʼéí (someone's kin). The alternative is to use the prefix ha- (one's) or bi- (his/her/its/their) to make these dictionary forms.

See also edit

Neapolitan edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Latin ad-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. compare Italian a-

Derived terms edit

Northern Ndebele edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Bantu *gá-.

Prefix edit

a- (medial wa-)

  1. they; class 6 subject concord.

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Bantu *gáá-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. of; class 6 possessive concord.

Etymology 3 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Prefix edit

a-

  1. Class 6 relative concord.

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Etymology 1 edit

From the first letter of the Norwegian alphabet a, from Latin a, from Ancient Greek Α (A, alpha), likely through the Etruscan language, from Phoenician𐤀(ʾ), from Proto-Canaanite  , from Proto-Sinaitic  , from Egyptian 𓃾.

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. indicating the first or best in something
    Synonyms: a, A-
    a- + ‎lag → ‎a-lag

Etymology 2 edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-, not, without), from Proto-Hellenic *ə- (un-, not; without, lacking), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥- (not, un-). Doublet of u-.

Compare an- (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. a- (not, without, opposite of)
    Synonyms: a, an-
    a- + ‎politisk (political) → ‎apolitisk (apolitical)
    a- + ‎sosial (social) → ‎asosial (asocial)
    a- + ‎symmetrisk (symmetrical) → ‎asymmetrisk (asymmetrical)
    a- + ‎gnostiker (gnostic) → ‎agnostiker (agnostic)
Alternative forms edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Clipping of atom-, from the noun atom (atom), from Ancient Greek ἄτομος (átomos, indivisible, uncut, undivided), whereas atombombe is a calque of English atomic bomb.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. Short for atom-.
    a- + ‎bombe → ‎a-bombe

References edit

  • “a-” in The Bokmål Dictionary.
  • “a-” in Det Norske Akademis ordbok (NAOB).
  • a-” in Store norske leksikon

Anagrams edit

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-, not, without).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. a- (not, without)

Derived terms edit

References edit

Old English edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From an earlier form ar-, from Proto-West Germanic *uʀ-, from Proto-Germanic *uz-. Cognate with Old High German ar-, ir- (German er-).

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

ā-

  1. from, away, off, out
    ānimanto take away, to remove

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Middle English: a-
    • English: a-

Old French edit

Etymology edit

From Latin ad, which was often reduced to a- in compounds.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. indicating movement towards something
  2. (by extension) indicating a change of state
  3. intensifying prefix
  4. alternative form of es-

Derived terms edit

Old Irish edit

Prefix edit

a- (class A infixed pronoun)

  1. him (triggers eclipsis)
  2. it (triggers lenition)

Usage notes edit

This form merges with the prefixes ro-, no-, di-, to-, fo-, ar-, and imm- to form ra-, na-, da-, da-, fa-, ara-, imma- respectively. It disappears after the particle (not), its only trace being the mutation it causes (eclipsis in the case of the masculine, lenition in the case of the neuter), thus ní cara (does not love) vs. ní chara (does not love it), ní ben (does not strike) vs. ní mben (does not strike him).

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Old Javanese edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Prefix edit

a-

  1. active verb forming
    Synonyms: (m)aN-, -um-
  2. adjective forming

Etymology 2 edit

Borrowed from Sanskrit अ- (a-, un-, not)

Prefix edit

a-

  1. un-, not

Derived terms edit

Old Saxon edit

Etymology edit

From an earlier form ar-, from Proto-Germanic *uz-. Cognate with Old English a-, Old High German ar-, ir- (German er-).

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. forming words with the sense from, away, out, off, e.g. animan

Derived terms edit

Phuthi edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *gá-.

Prefix edit

a- (medial wa-)

  1. they; class 6 subject concord.

Polish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥- (un-, not), zero-grade form of *ne (not). Doublet of nie.

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. forming words with the sense of negation, a-
    a- + ‎społeczny → ‎aspołeczny

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • a- in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese a-, from Latin ad-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. added to adjective X, forms verbs meaning to make/turn X
    a- + ‎vermelho (red) + ‎-ar → ‎avermelhar (to redden)
    a- + ‎baixo (low) + ‎-ar → ‎abaixar (to lower)
  2. added to noun X, forms verbs meaning to cause or make X or to cause something to have X
    a- + ‎pavor (dread) + ‎-ar → ‎apavorar (to frighten)
    a- + ‎fama (fame) + ‎-ar → ‎afamar (to make famous)

Etymology 2 edit

Borrowed from Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. a- (not; without)
    Synonym: in-

Derived terms edit

Sardinian edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Classical Latin ad-, from the preposition ad (to, towards).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. ad- (toward, to, tendency)

Derived terms edit

Scots edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English a- (on), derived from unstressed Middle English an (on), from Old English an (on).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. on
    aback, agley, agrufe, athort, atween

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle English a-, from Old English of- (off).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. off
    adoon

Etymology 3 edit

From Old Norse at- (to).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. to
    adae, agae

Etymology 4 edit

From Middle English a- (up, out, away), from Old English ā-, originally *ar-, *or-, from Proto-Germanic *uz- (out-).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. away from
    abide, arise

Etymology 5 edit

From Middle English and-, from Old English and- (against, back), from Proto-Germanic *andi- (across, opposite, against, away).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. against, opposite
    alang

Etymology 6 edit

From Middle English a-, from Old English ane (one).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. one
    awhile

Etymology 7 edit

From ah!

Prefix edit

a-

  1. ah
    aweel, alake

Etymology 8 edit

From Middle English a-, from Middle French a-, from Latin ad (towards).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. towards
    avise

Etymology 9 edit

From Latin ab (of, off, from, away).

Prefix edit

a-

  1. away from
    assoilzie

References edit

Serbo-Croatian edit

Etymology edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥- (un-, not), zero-grade form of *ne (not). Doublet of ne.

Prefix edit

a- (Cyrillic spelling а-)

  1. Prefix prepended to words to denote a negation, deprivation or absence of a property denoted by base word.
    Synonyms: bez-, ne-
    a- + ‎sȍcijālan → ‎ȁsocijālan
    a- + ‎simètrija → ‎asimètrija
    a- + ‎brahija → ‎abrahija

References edit

  • a-” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Southern Ndebele edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Bantu *gá-.

Prefix edit

a- (medial wa-)

  1. they; class 6 subject concord.

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Bantu *gáá-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. of; class 6 possessive concord.

Etymology 3 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Prefix edit

a-

  1. Class 6 relative concord.

Spanish edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Latin ad-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. forms words, especially verbs, that denote entering a state, making progress toward a goal, or the like
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel; generalized from the many Latin borrowings using this prefix.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. a-, non-, -less
Usage notes edit
  • Used with stems that begin with consonants except h. an- is synonymous and is used in front of words that start with vowels and h. For example, analfabetismo (analphabetism).

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Swahili edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Bantu *à-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. she, he; 3rd person singular (m class(I)) subject concord
    Antonym: ha-
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. Contraction of a- + -a- (3rd person singular (m class(I)) gnomic).

Swazi edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Bantu *à-.

Prefix edit

a- (medial ka-)

  1. he, she, it; class 1 subject concord, used in the subjunctive and potential mood.
See also edit
  • u- (in other cases)

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Bantu *gá-.

Prefix edit

a- (medial wa-)

  1. they; class 6 subject concord.

Etymology 3 edit

From Proto-Bantu *gáá-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. of; class 6 possessive concord.

Tagalog edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Spanish a, from Latin ad.

Pronunciation edit

  • Hyphenation: a-
  • IPA(key): /ʔa/, [ʔɐ]

Prefix edit

a- (Baybayin spelling )

  1. at (indicating time)
    Puntahan kita sa a-primero ng Marso.
    I'll go to you at the first of March.
    Sahuran tuwing a-kinse ng bawat buwan.
    It is payday every 15th of every month.
    A-treynta y uno kahapon.
    Yesterday was the 31st.

Usage notes edit

  • Only used before Spanish cardinal numbers to tell the date for a month. For the first day of a month, a-primero is more correct but a-uno is also used by younger speakers. The prefix has the same function as ika- for Tagalog cardinal numbers.
  • The prefix is optional but Spanish-oriented speakers often use it.

Derived terms edit

Tooro edit

Alternative forms edit

  • (before -a- or subjunctive -e-) y-
  • (before vowels in other cases) ay-

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bantu *à-.

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. he, she; class 1 subject concord
    a- + ‎-kora (to do) → ‎akora (he/she does)

See also edit

References edit

  • Kaji, Shigeki (2007) A Rutooro Vocabulary[2] (in English), Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa (ILCAA), →ISBN, page 413

Welsh edit

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. affirmative prefix, emphasises prefixed word
    a- + ‎trist (sad) → ‎athrist (very sad, sorrowful)
    a- + ‎traidd (piercing, penetration) → ‎athraidd (permeable)

Usage notes edit

Triggers aspirate mutation of the following consonant.

Derived terms edit

Mutation edit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
a- unchanged unchanged ha-
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References edit

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “a-”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Xhosa edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Bantu *gá-.

Prefix edit

a- (medial wa-)

  1. they; class 6 subject concord.

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Bantu *gáá-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. of; class 6 possessive concord.

Etymology 3 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Prefix edit

a-

  1. Class 6 relative concord.

Etymology 4 edit

From Proto-Bantu *nkà-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. not
Usage notes edit

Used in the indicative mood, prefixed to the subject concord.

Ye'kwana edit

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. allomorph of öt- (detransitivizing prefix).
  2. Allomorph of ö- (second-person prefix) used for stems that begin with a consonant and have a first vowel a or e.

Inflection edit

Zulu edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Bantu *à-.

Prefix edit

á- (medial ká-)

  1. he, she, it; class 1 subject concord, used in the subjunctive and potential mood.
See also edit
  • u- (in other cases)

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Bantu *gá-.

Prefix edit

á- (medial wá-)

  1. they; class 6 subject concord.

Etymology 3 edit

From Proto-Bantu *gáá-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. of; class 6 possessive concord.

Etymology 4 edit

Originally a reduced form of la- (general demonstrative). Compare Swazi relative forms such as lesi-, which still keep the initial l-.

Prefix edit

ā́-

  1. Used to form relative clauses.
Usage notes edit

This prefix has conditioned allomorphs o- and e-.

Etymology 5 edit

From a- (relative) +‎ a- (class 6).

Prefix edit

ā́-

  1. Class 6 relative concord.

Etymology 6 edit

From Proto-Bantu *nkà-.

Prefix edit

a-

  1. not
Usage notes edit

Used in the indicative mood, prefixed to the subject concord.

Alternative forms edit

Etymology 7 edit

Prefix edit

a-

  1. Alternative form of ma- (hortative)

References edit