EnglishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • a- (Devonshire)

EtymologyEdit

From Middle English y-, from Old English ġe- (perfective and associative prefix); see those entries for more.

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

y-

  1. (not productive, obsolete) Used with past participle conjugations to form past participles (this prefix does not occur independently and is no longer productive).
    ybarred, yclept, yclad, ybaptized

AfarEdit

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

y-

  1. Used together with the suffix -i to create masculine agent nouns.

ReferencesEdit

  • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie)[1], Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis), page 118

KambaEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

y-

  1. he or she (used for conjugating verbs to the subjective or nominative case of the personal pronoun)

MaquiritariEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (allomorphs) ∅-, ü-, u-

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

y-

  1. Marks a noun as having a first-person possessor.
  2. Marks a postposition as having a first-person object.
  3. Marks a transitive verb as having a first-person patient/object when the agent/subject is of third person with verb forms that take series I markers.
  4. Marks a transitive verb as having a first-person patient/object when the agent/subject is unspecified with verb forms that take series II markers.
  5. Marks an intransitive verb with patient-like argument as having a first-person argument/subject with verb forms that take series I markers (excepting a few verbs that take w-) and on all intransitive verbs with verb forms that take series II markers.
  6. Marks a verb form derived with n- and -dü or -'jüdü as having a first-person agent/subject.
Usage notesEdit

The form taken by this prefix depends on the first syllable of the stem it attaches to:

  • y- if the first syllable begins with a vowel.
  • ∅- (i.e. the prefix disappears) if the first syllable begins with a consonant.
  • ü- if the first syllable begins with two consonants, e.g. as a result of syllable reduction.
  • u- if the first syllable begins with two consonants and its vowel is u.

In addition, if the first syllable is an open syllable and not reduced, then its vowel is lengthened, even in the case where the prefix itself disappears.

InflectionEdit

Etymology 2Edit

The allomorphs ∅- and i- are direct descendants of the original Proto-Cariban *i-, used before consonants. However, Proto-Cariban had ∅- on vowel-initial stems; the Maquiritari forms y- and ch- are innovations that it shares with certain other Cariban languages. For the former, compare Apalaí, Bakairí, and Chaima y-. The latter, meanwhile, derives from an earlier form *it- also found in several languages of the Venezuelan Cariban branch.

Alternative formsEdit

  • (allomorphs) ch-, ∅-, i-
  • (allomorph with postpositions only) chö-

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

y-

  1. Marks a noun as having a third-person possessor.
  2. Marks a postposition as having a third-person object.
  3. Marks a transitive verb as having a third-person patient/object with verb forms that take series II markers.
  4. Marks an intransitive verb as having a third-person argument/subject with verb forms that take series II markers.
  5. Marks a verb as having third-person arguments when marked with the admonitive -'no, prohibitive -i, or uncertain future -tai suffixes.
Usage notesEdit

The form taken by this prefix depends on the first syllable of the stem it attaches to:

  • y- if the first syllable begins with a vowel other than ö.
  • ch- if the first syllable begins with a vowel ö.
  • ∅- (i.e. the prefix disappears) if the first syllable begins with a consonant. The initial consonant is also palatalized.
  • But, with postpositions only, chö- instead if the first syllable begins with a consonant j, n, w, or y.
  • i- if the first syllable begins with two consonants, e.g. as a result of syllable reduction.

In addition, if the first syllable is an open syllable and not reduced, then its vowel is lengthened, even in the case where the prefix itself disappears.

InflectionEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011) Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana[2], Lyon, page 168–169, 172–174, 176–177, 186–188, 190–191, 212

Middle EnglishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old English ġe- (perfective and associative prefix), from unstressed Proto-Germanic *ga-, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm (with). Cognate with Old Frisian e-, Central Franconian je-, Old Saxon gi-, Dutch ge-, Old High German ga- (German ge-), Old Norse g-, Gothic 𐌲𐌰- (ga-). See also ker-.

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

y-

  1. Used with past participle conjugations to form past participles (this prefix does not occur independently).

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • English: y-, a-, i- (obsolete)
  • Yola: ee-

Usage notesEdit

  • Not productive in Modern English.
  • This prefix represents a common Germanic collective prefix, as well as a perfective prefix which was used to form past participles. Already by the Old English period such participles could be used with or without it, and as it passed into Middle English forms y-, i-, and ȝe-, it became less productive. The prefix was later adopted as a conscious archaism by some writers such as Edmund Spenser, who prepended it to existing past participles.

See alsoEdit

  • , Middle English abbreviation for þe
  • Middle English, y- (prefix) is often confused with ye (pronoun) or with þe (the) or ye (article, definite) and the thorn þ due to typographic variation:
    • ȝe- / y- is pronounced /ɪ/, consistent with the Old English pronunciation of ge- as /je/, /jə/ and is a verbal prefix dropped in modern English.
    • In Middle English, the article ye or ye is pronounced thē, thə and is effectively an alternate spelling of þe (the).

NavajoEdit

PrefixEdit

y-

  1. a marker for the third person object