Old IrishEdit

Alternative formsEdit


From Proto-Celtic *ad-kʷiseti, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷeys-(observe). The deuterotonic perfect forms and the present indicative ro-form ad·rodarcar are from the Proto-Celtic stem *derk-, from Proto-Indo-European *derḱ-(to see).

Cognate with Sanskrit चायति(cāyati, perceive). The ro-forms are cognate with Sanskrit दृश्(dṛś), Ancient Greek δέρκομαι(dérkomai), Old English torht(bright, clear), Albanian dritë(light).



ad·cí ‎(prototonic ·aicci, verbal noun aicsiu)

  1. to see, to behold
  2. to perceive
  3. (in passive) to seem, to appear
    • c. 750, Preface to Saint Patrick's Breastplate, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, (1901–03, Cambridge University Press; reprinted 1975, 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, 2:354–58:
      conid annsin atchessa fiad lucht na netarnade comtis aige alta ⁊ iarróe ina ndiaid .i. Benen
      And then it appeared before those lying in ambush that they were wild deer with a fawn (Benén) following them.

Usage notesEdit

The present-tense ro-forms ·airciu, ad·rodarcar, etc., mean “can see”, “can be seen”, etc.


Derived termsEdit



Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
ad·cí ad·chí ad·cí
pronounced with /-ɡ(ʲ)-/
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.


  • ad·cí” in Dictionary of the Irish Language, Royal Irish Academy, 1913–76.