Old IrishEdit

Alternative formsEdit


From Proto-Celtic *ad-kʷiso-, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷeis- ‎(observe) (compare Sanskrit चायति ‎(cāyati, perceives)) or Proto-Indo-European *kʷes- (compare Sanskrit चक्षति ‎(cakṣati, sees)). The deuterotonic perfect forms and the present indicative ro-form ad·rodarcar are from the Proto-Celtic stem *derk-, from Proto-Indo-European *derḱ- ‎(to see); cognate with Sanskrit दृश् ‎(dṛś), Greek δέρκομαι ‎(dérkomai), Old English torht ‎(bright, clear), Albanian dritë ‎(light).



ad·cí ‎(prototonic ·aicci, verbal noun aicsiu)

  1. see, behold
  2. perceive
  3. (in passive) seem, appear
    • c. 750, Preface to Saint Patrick's Breastplate, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, (1901–03, Cambridge University Press; reprinted 1975, 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, 2:354–58:
      conid annsin atchessa fiad lucht na netarnade comtis aige alta ⁊ iarróe ina ndiaid .i. Benen
      And then it appeared before those lying in ambush that they were wild deer with a fawn (Benén) following them.

For more examples of usage of this term, see Citations:adcí.


Usage notesEdit

The present-tense ro-forms ·airciu, ad·rodarcar, etc., mean “can see”, “can be seen”, etc.

Derived termsEdit



Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
ad·cí ad·chí ad·cí
pronounced with /-ɡ(ʲ)-/
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.


  • "ad·cí" in Dictionary of the Irish Language, Royal Irish Academy, 1913–76.