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Old IrishEdit

Alternative formsEdit


From Proto-Celtic *ad-kʷiseti, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷeys- (observe). The deuterotonic perfect forms and the present indicative ro-form ad·rodarcar are from Proto-Celtic *derk-, from Proto-Indo-European *derḱ- (to see).

Cognate with Sanskrit चायति (cāyati, perceive). The ro-forms are cognate with Sanskrit दृश् (dṛś), Ancient Greek δέρκομαι (dérkomai), Old English torht (bright, clear), Albanian dritë (light).



ad·cí (prototonic ·aicci, verbal noun aicsiu)

  1. to see, to behold
  2. to perceive
  3. (in passive) to seem, to appear
    • c. 750, Preface to Saint Patrick's Breastplate, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, (1901–03, Cambridge University Press; reprinted 1975, 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, 2:354–58:
      conid annsin atchessa fiad lucht na netarnade comtis aige alta ⁊ iarróe ina ndiaid .i. Benen
      And then it appeared before those lying in ambush that they were wild deer with a fawn (Benén) following them.

Usage notesEdit

The present-tense ro-forms ·airciu, ad·rodarcar, etc., mean “can see”, “can be seen”, etc.


Derived termsEdit



Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
ad·cí ad·chí ad·cí
pronounced with /-ɡ(ʲ)-/
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.


  • ad·cí” in Dictionary of the Irish Language, Royal Irish Academy, 1913–76.