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LatinEdit

EtymologyEdit

From a Proto-Italic *arðwos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₃erdʰwós (whence also Old Irish ard and Welsh ardd), from *h₃erdʰ- + *-wós (whence Latin -uus).

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

arduus (feminine ardua, neuter arduum); first/second declension

  1. lofty, high, steep, tall, elevated
  2. hard to reach, difficult, laborious, arduous
    Nihil mortalibus arduum est.
    Nothing is hard for mortals. (Horace)

InflectionEdit

First/second declension.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative arduus ardua arduum arduī arduae ardua
genitive arduī arduae arduī arduōrum arduārum arduōrum
dative arduō arduō arduīs
accusative arduum arduam arduum arduōs arduās ardua
ablative arduō arduā arduō arduīs
vocative ardue ardua arduum arduī arduae ardua

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • arduus in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • arduus in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • arduus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette