ऊर्ध्व

SanskritEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-Aryan *r̥Hdʰwás, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *r̥Hdʰwás, from Proto-Indo-European *h₃r̥dʰwós (high, upright). Cognate with Ancient Greek ὀρθός (orthós), Latin arduus, Avestan 𐬆𐬭𐬆𐬜𐬡𐬀(ərəδβa), Old Norse ǫrðugr (steep). Morphologically formed from the verbal root वर्धति (√vṛdh, to grow, elevate).

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

ऊर्ध्व (ūrdhvá)

  1. rising or tending upwards, raised, elevated, erected, erect, upright, high, above
    • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 1.36.13:
      ऊर्ध्व ऊ षु ण ऊतये तिष्ठा देवो न सविता।
      ऊर्ध्वो वाजस्य सनिता यदञ्जिभिर्वाघद्भिर्विह्वयामहे॥
      ūrdhva ū ṣu ṇa ūtaye tiṣṭhā devo na savitā.
      ūrdhvo vājasya sanitā yadañjibhirvāghadbhirvihvayāmahe.
      Stand up erect to lend us aid, stand up like Savitar the God:
      Erect as strength-bestower we call aloud, with unguents and with priests, on thee.

Usage notesEdit

In Classical Sanskrit occurring chiefly in compounds.

DeclensionEdit

Masculine a-stem declension of ऊर्ध्व
Nom. sg. ऊर्ध्वः (ūrdhvaḥ)
Gen. sg. ऊर्ध्वस्य (ūrdhvasya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ऊर्ध्वः (ūrdhvaḥ) ऊर्ध्वौ (ūrdhvau) ऊर्ध्वाः (ūrdhvāḥ)
Vocative ऊर्ध्व (ūrdhva) ऊर्ध्वौ (ūrdhvau) ऊर्ध्वाः (ūrdhvāḥ)
Accusative ऊर्ध्वम् (ūrdhvam) ऊर्ध्वौ (ūrdhvau) ऊर्ध्वान् (ūrdhvān)
Instrumental ऊर्ध्वेन (ūrdhvena) ऊर्ध्वाभ्याम् (ūrdhvābhyām) ऊर्ध्वैः (ūrdhvaiḥ)
Dative ऊर्ध्वाय (ūrdhvāya) ऊर्ध्वाभ्याम् (ūrdhvābhyām) ऊर्ध्वेभ्यः (ūrdhvebhyaḥ)
Ablative ऊर्ध्वात् (ūrdhvāt) ऊर्ध्वाभ्याम् (ūrdhvābhyām) ऊर्ध्वेभ्यः (ūrdhvebhyaḥ)
Genitive ऊर्ध्वस्य (ūrdhvasya) ऊर्ध्वयोः (ūrdhvayoḥ) ऊर्ध्वानाम् (ūrdhvānām)
Locative ऊर्ध्वे (ūrdhve) ऊर्ध्वयोः (ūrdhvayoḥ) ऊर्ध्वेषु (ūrdhveṣu)
Feminine ā-stem declension of ऊर्ध्व
Nom. sg. ऊर्ध्वा (ūrdhvā)
Gen. sg. ऊर्ध्वायाः (ūrdhvāyāḥ)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ऊर्ध्वा (ūrdhvā) ऊर्ध्वे (ūrdhve) ऊर्ध्वाः (ūrdhvāḥ)
Vocative ऊर्ध्वे (ūrdhve) ऊर्ध्वे (ūrdhve) ऊर्ध्वाः (ūrdhvāḥ)
Accusative ऊर्ध्वाम् (ūrdhvām) ऊर्ध्वे (ūrdhve) ऊर्ध्वाः (ūrdhvāḥ)
Instrumental ऊर्ध्वया (ūrdhvayā) ऊर्ध्वाभ्याम् (ūrdhvābhyām) ऊर्ध्वाभिः (ūrdhvābhiḥ)
Dative ऊर्ध्वायै (ūrdhvāyai) ऊर्ध्वाभ्याम् (ūrdhvābhyām) ऊर्ध्वाभ्यः (ūrdhvābhyaḥ)
Ablative ऊर्ध्वायाः (ūrdhvāyāḥ) ऊर्ध्वाभ्याम् (ūrdhvābhyām) ऊर्ध्वाभ्यः (ūrdhvābhyaḥ)
Genitive ऊर्ध्वायाः (ūrdhvāyāḥ) ऊर्ध्वयोः (ūrdhvayoḥ) ऊर्ध्वानाम् (ūrdhvānām)
Locative ऊर्ध्वायाम् (ūrdhvāyām) ऊर्ध्वयोः (ūrdhvayoḥ) ऊर्ध्वासु (ūrdhvāsu)
Neuter a-stem declension of ऊर्ध्व
Nom. sg. ऊर्ध्वम् (ūrdhvam)
Gen. sg. ऊर्ध्वस्य (ūrdhvasya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ऊर्ध्वम् (ūrdhvam) ऊर्ध्वे (ūrdhve) ऊर्ध्वानि (ūrdhvāni)
Vocative ऊर्ध्व (ūrdhva) ऊर्ध्वे (ūrdhve) ऊर्ध्वानि (ūrdhvāni)
Accusative ऊर्ध्वम् (ūrdhvam) ऊर्ध्वे (ūrdhve) ऊर्ध्वानि (ūrdhvāni)
Instrumental ऊर्ध्वेन (ūrdhvena) ऊर्ध्वाभ्याम् (ūrdhvābhyām) ऊर्ध्वैः (ūrdhvaiḥ)
Dative ऊर्ध्वाय (ūrdhvāya) ऊर्ध्वाभ्याम् (ūrdhvābhyām) ऊर्ध्वेभ्यः (ūrdhvebhyaḥ)
Ablative ऊर्ध्वात् (ūrdhvāt) ऊर्ध्वाभ्याम् (ūrdhvābhyām) ऊर्ध्वेभ्यः (ūrdhvebhyaḥ)
Genitive ऊर्ध्वस्य (ūrdhvasya) ऊर्ध्वयोः (ūrdhvayoḥ) ऊर्ध्वानाम् (ūrdhvānām)
Locative ऊर्ध्वे (ūrdhve) ऊर्ध्वयोः (ūrdhvayoḥ) ऊर्ध्वेषु (ūrdhveṣu)

NounEdit

ऊर्ध्व (ūrdhván

  1. height, elevation
  2. anything placed above or higher (+ ablative)
    ऊर्ध्वं-गच्छति√gamto go upwards or into heaven, die

DeclensionEdit

Neuter a-stem declension of ऊर्ध्व (ūrdhvá)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ऊर्ध्वम्
ūrdhvám
ऊर्ध्वे
ūrdhvé
ऊर्ध्वानि / ऊर्ध्वा¹
ūrdhvā́ni / ūrdhvā́¹
Vocative ऊर्ध्व
ū́rdhva
ऊर्ध्वे
ū́rdhve
ऊर्ध्वानि / ऊर्ध्वा¹
ū́rdhvāni / ū́rdhvā¹
Accusative ऊर्ध्वम्
ūrdhvám
ऊर्ध्वे
ūrdhvé
ऊर्ध्वानि / ऊर्ध्वा¹
ūrdhvā́ni / ūrdhvā́¹
Instrumental ऊर्ध्वेन
ūrdhvéna
ऊर्ध्वाभ्याम्
ūrdhvā́bhyām
ऊर्ध्वैः / ऊर्ध्वेभिः¹
ūrdhvaíḥ / ūrdhvébhiḥ¹
Dative ऊर्ध्वाय
ūrdhvā́ya
ऊर्ध्वाभ्याम्
ūrdhvā́bhyām
ऊर्ध्वेभ्यः
ūrdhvébhyaḥ
Ablative ऊर्ध्वात्
ūrdhvā́t
ऊर्ध्वाभ्याम्
ūrdhvā́bhyām
ऊर्ध्वेभ्यः
ūrdhvébhyaḥ
Genitive ऊर्ध्वस्य
ūrdhvásya
ऊर्ध्वयोः
ūrdhváyoḥ
ऊर्ध्वानाम्
ūrdhvā́nām
Locative ऊर्ध्वे
ūrdhvé
ऊर्ध्वयोः
ūrdhváyoḥ
ऊर्ध्वेषु
ūrdhvéṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

PrepositionEdit

ऊर्ध्व (ūrdhvá)

  1. in the sequel, in the later part (e.g. of a book or manuscript; because in Sanskrit manuscripts the later leaves stand above), subsequent, after (with ablative)
    अत ऊर्ध्वम् (ata ūrdhvam), or इत ऊर्ध्वम् (ita ūrdhvam) ― hence forward, from that time forward, after that passage, hereafter
    ऊर्ध्वं संवत्सरात्ūrdhvaṃ saṃvatsarātafter a year
    ऊर्ध्वं देहात्ūrdhvaṃ dehātafter life, after death
  2. after, after the death of (+ ablative)
    ऊर्ध्वं पितुःūrdhvaṃ pituḥafter the father's death
  3. in a high tone, aloud