Contents

LatvianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (dialectal form) dums

EtymologyEdit

Some researchers consider this term a simple borrowing from German dumm(stupid). Others derive it (and its parallel o-stem dialectal variant dums) from Proto-Baltic *dum-, *dūm-, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰu-, *dʰū-(to be dusty; to whirl; to blow), whence also dūmi(smoke) (q.v.). The original meaning, possibly influenced by dūmi, was apparently “gray, dark brown” (compare Sudovian dumo(dark)). There apparently is a relation between dark colors and the human spirit or mind (compare Sanskrit धूमः(dhūmáḥ, smoke), धूम्रः(dhūmráḥ, gray, smokey color; spiritually dazed, enchanted, obsessed), or Ancient Greek θυμιάω(thumiáō, to smoke, to puff smoke), θυμόομαι(thumóomai, to get angry)). At this point, Middle Low German dum(stupid) (compare German dumm) probably influenced the semantic development of dumjš. Cognates include Middle Low German dum, Old High German tumb, Gothic 𐌳𐌿𐌼𐌱𐍃(dumbs).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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AdjectiveEdit

dumjš (def. dumjais, comp. dumjāks, sup. visdumjākais; adv. dumji)

  1. stupid, dim-witted, foolish, silly
    Kristiņa ir briesmīgi dumjš meitēns‎ ― Kristiņa is a terribly silly girl
    mēs stāvējām abi vēsajā vakarā, jauni un dumji‎ ― we both stood in the cool evening, young and stupid
    dumjš kā zābaks‎ ― stupid as a boot (i.e., very stupid)
    dumjš kā ēzelis‎ ― stupid as a donkey (i.e., very stupid)
  2. stupid, foolish, silly (expressing such qualities)
    dumjš skatiens‎ ― stupid, goofy look
    dumja rīcība‎ ― stupid, silly action, behavior
  3. stupid, foolish, silly (with contents that express such qualities)
    dumjš joks‎ ― stupid, silly joke
    dumja dziesma‎ ― silly song

DeclensionEdit

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “dumjš”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7