See also: dúm, dùm, düm, dům, đùm, -dum, and d'um

Translingual

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Symbol

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dum

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-2 & ISO 639-3 language code for Middle Dutch.

English

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Hindi दम (dam).

Adjective

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dum (not comparable)

  1. (India, cooking) cooked with steam
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Etymology 2

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Interjection

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dum

  1. Syllable used when humming a tune.
    • 2012, Graeme Burk, Robert Smith, Who is the Doctor:
      I like to hang out with friends and travel the world. But if there's one thing I really love, it's Doctor Who. Dum de dum, dum de dum, dum de dum. Whooo-eee-oooo dum de dum, de dum de dum.

Etymology 3

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Adjective

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dum

  1. (nonstandard, humorous) Alternative spelling of dumb.

Etymology 4

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Adjective

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dum (not comparable)

  1. Pronunciation spelling of damn.

See also

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etymologically unrelated terms

Anagrams

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Balinese

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Romanization

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dum

  1. Romanization of ᬤᬸᬫ᭄

Danish

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Etymology

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From Old Norse dumbr (dumb), and in the main sense stupid from German dumm. Both from Proto-Germanic *dumbaz, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-. Compare Norwegian and Swedish dum, Icelandic dumbur, English dumb, Low German dumm, Dutch dom, German dumm.

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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dum

  1. stupid, dense, dumb, thick, dim
  2. foolish, silly, daft

Inflection

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Inflection of dum
Positive Comparative Superlative
Indefinte common singular dum dummere dummest2
Indefinite neuter singular dumt dummere dummest2
Plural dumme dummere dummest2
Definite attributive1 dumme dummere dummeste
1) When an adjective is applied predicatively to something definite, the corresponding "indefinite" form is used.
2) The "indefinite" superlatives may not be used attributively.

Esperanto

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Etymology

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From Latin dum.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [dum]
  • Audio:(file)
  • Hyphenation: dum

Preposition

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dum

  1. for
    Mi estos en Usono dum du jaroj.I will be in the USA for two years.
  2. during
  3. while
  4. whereas

Etymology

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From Esperanto dum, from Latin dum.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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dum

  1. during, in (a period of time)
    Il esis absenta dum tri yari.He was absent for three years.

Derived terms

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  • dume (meanwhile, meantime)

Javanese

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Etymology

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From Old Javanese dum.

Verb

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dum

  1. to divide

Latin

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Etymology

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From Proto-Italic *dūm (adverb), from *dweh₂- (long) +‎ *-m (adverbial suffix). Compare dūdum.[1]

Pronunciation

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Conjunction

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dum

  1. (indicating coincidence of duration): (with indicative) while, whilst, as, meanwhile (as), (for) as long as, until
    Synonyms: interea, interim, quamdiū
    Dum vīxī tacuī, mortua dulcē canō.While I lived I was quiet; dead I sweetly sing.
    dum erunt hominēsas long as there are humans (as long as humankind exists)
    • c. 37 BCE – 30 BCE, Virgil, Georgics III.284–285:
      fugit inreparabile tempus
      singula dum capti circumvectamur amore
      Irretrievable time flies away while, in thrall to love, we are carried about from one thing to another.
    • 16 BCE, Ovid, The Loves 1.11.15:
      Dum loquor, hōra fugit.
      While I speak, the hour flees away.
  2. (indicating coincidence of duration): (before a verbal substantive) during
    Synonym: quamdiū
  3. (indicating duration with expectancy): (with subjunctive) until, long enough for
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 4.325–326:
      “Quid moror? An mea Pygmaliōn dum moenia frāter
      dēstruat, aut captam dūcat Gaetūlus Iarbās?”
      “What am I waiting for? Until my brother Pygmalion busts down these walls? Or the Gaetulian, Iarbas, drags me away, enslaved?”
  4. (indicating duration with contingency): (with subjunctive) as long as, (for) so long as, provided (that), on the condition that
    Synonym: dummodo
    Oderint, dum metuant.Let them hate, so long as they fear.

Usage notes

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Dum offers speakers of Latin the capacity to express duration with coincidence, expectancy, or contingency. Classical authors most often used dum in order to express coincidental duration, and so it was most often accompanied by verbs in the indicative mood; the adverb dummodo was generally used to express aspects of contingency.

Derived terms

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Adverb

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dum

  1. (Old Latin) for a while, still

Derived terms

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Descendants

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  • Asturian: dun (1861 translation of the Gospel of Matthew), demientres
  • Esperanto: dum

References

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  1. ^ Dunkel, George E. (2014) “*du̯eh₂-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme [Lexicon of Indo-European Particles and Pronominal Stems] (Indogermanische Bibliothek. 2. Reihe: Wörterbücher) (in German), volume 2: Lexikon, Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter GmbH Heidelberg, →ISBN, page 165

Further reading

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  • dum”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • dum”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • dum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • I cannot wait till..: nihil mihi longius est or videtur quam dum or quam ut
    • as long as one's strength holds out: dum vires suppetunt
    • as long as I live: dum vita suppetit; dum (quoad) vivo
  • dum in Ramminger, Johann (2016 July 16 (last accessed)) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016

Maia

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Adjective

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dum

  1. wet

Middle English

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Adjective

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dum

  1. Alternative form of dumb

Norwegian Bokmål

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Etymology

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From Old Norse dumbr, from Proto-Germanic *dumbaz, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-. Cognate with English dumb, Danish dum and Swedish dum, Icelandic dumbur, Dutch dom, German dumm.

Adjective

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dum (neuter singular dumt, definite singular and plural dumme, comparative dummere, indefinite superlative dummest, definite superlative dummeste)

  1. foolish
  2. stupid, silly

Derived terms

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References

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Norwegian Nynorsk

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Etymology

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From Old Norse dumbr, from Proto-Germanic *dumbaz, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-.

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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dum (neuter singular dumt, definite singular and plural dumme, comparative dummare, indefinite superlative dummast, definite superlative dummaste)

  1. foolish
  2. stupid, silly

References

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Old French

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Old Norse dúnn (down, feathers), from Proto-Germanic *dūnaz. Cognate with English down, German Daun.

Noun

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dum m

  1. down, feathers of small birds used as insulation material in duvets and sleeping bags

Descendants

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Old Irish

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Noun

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dum

  1. Alternative form of daum

Mutation

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Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
dum dum
pronounced with /ð(ʲ)-/
ndum
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Old Javanese

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Etymology

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Unknown, probably from Proto-Mon-Khmer *t1um (collection, accumulation) (compare to Khmer ដុំ (dom, loaf; piece, block, chunk, part; pile, cluster, bunch), Eastern Cham ḍaum (group)). (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

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Noun

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dum

  1. part

Alternative forms

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Derived terms

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Descendants

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Polish

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /dum/
  • Rhymes: -um
  • Syllabification: dum

Noun

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dum f

  1. genitive plural of duma

Portuguese

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From earlier d'um, from de (of) + um (a, masculine singular indefinite article).

Pronunciation

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  • Hyphenation: dum

Contraction

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dum (feminine duma, masculine plural duns, feminine plural dumas)

  1. Contraction of de um (of/from a (masculine)).

Usage notes

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  • The contraction of de + um / uma is never obligatory and sometimes associated with spoken language. In a few cases it is not possible:
  1. When de is part of a preposition, as in em vez de:[1]
    Em vez de um escalão ter três anos, ...
  2. When um is a numeral:
    Trata-se de um ou dois dias.

References

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Saterland Frisian

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Etymology

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From Old Frisian dumb, from Proto-Germanic *dumbaz. More at dumb.

Adjective

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dum

  1. stupid; dumb
    Synonym: hoolich
  2. blindly
  3. dizzy

Derived terms

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References

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  • Marron C. Fort (2015) “dum”, in Saterfriesisches Wörterbuch mit einer phonologischen und grammatischen Übersicht, Buske, →ISBN

Swedish

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Etymology

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From Old Swedish dumber, from Old Norse dumbr, from Proto-Germanic *dumbaz, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-. Compare Norwegian dumb, Danish dum, Icelandic dumbur, English dumb, Dutch dom and German dumm.

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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dum (comparative dummare, superlative dummast)

  1. stupid, dumb
    Du är inte så dum som du ser ut
    You're not as stupid as you look
  2. causing trouble or annoyance
    Dumt att den inte levereras förrän imorgon. Det kommer ställa till med problem.
    It's a shame that it won't be delivered until tomorrow. It's going to cause trouble.
    En kopp kaffe vore inte dumt
    A cup of coffee would be nice (wouldn't be bad)
  3. (often childish) mean, cruel, misbehaving, naughty
    Han var dum mot mig!
    He was mean to me!
    Mamma sa till Olle att sluta vara dum
    Mom told Olle to stop being naughty
    Jag borde inte sagt elaka saker till honom. Det var dumt gjort.
    I shouldn't have said mean things to him. It was a stupid thing to do. (not childish – leans more towards morally bad, like in English)

Declension

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Inflection of dum
Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular dum dummare dummast
Neuter singular dumt dummare dummast
Plural dumma dummare dummast
Masculine plural3 dumme dummare dummast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 dumme dummare dummaste
All dumma dummare dummaste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in the predicative.
3) Dated or archaic

Derived terms

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References

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Talysh

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Etymology

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Cognate with Persian دم (dom).

Noun

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dum

  1. tail

Tarifit

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Moroccan Arabic دام (dām).

Pronunciation

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  This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Verb

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dum (Tifinagh spelling ⴷⵓⵎ)

  1. (intransitive) to last, to subsist, to perpetuate

Conjugation

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This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms

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  • ddwam (duration, continuity)
  • ddaym (eternal)
  • dima (always)

Tausug

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Etymology

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From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *delem.

Noun

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dum

  1. night

Uzbek

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Other scripts
Cyrillic дум (dum)
Latin dum
Perso-Arabic

Etymology

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From Persian دم (dom).

Noun

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dum (plural dumlar)

  1. tail