earfoþe

Old EnglishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-West Germanic *arbaiþi, from Proto-Germanic *arbaidiz (hardship), from a verb *arbijaną, *arbāną (be orphaned).

Compare Old English ierfa. See also Proto-Indo-European *h₃órbʰos, whence Ancient Greek ὀρφανός (orphanós), Latin orbus, Old Church Slavonic рабъ (rabŭ, slave). Cognate with Old Frisian arbēd, Old Saxon arƀed, arvēd, Old Dutch arbeit (Dutch arbeid), Old High German arbeit (German Arbeit (work, labour)), Old Norse erfiði (Swedish arvode (salary)), Gothic 𐌰𐍂𐌱𐌰𐌹𐌸𐍃 (arbaiþs).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈæ͜ɑr.fo.θe/, [ˈæ͜ɑrˠ.vo.θe]

AdjectiveEdit

earfoþe

  1. hard, difficult

DeclensionEdit

AntonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Middle English: arveð, earfeþ, earveþ, arveþ, arveth
    • English: arveth (obsolete)

NounEdit

earfoþe n (nominative plural earfoþu)

  1. work; labour
  2. suffering; hardship
  3. labour; pains; trouble; childbirth
  4. disease

Derived termsEdit