Open main menu

Wiktionary β

See also: Hard, härd, and hård

Contents

EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle English hard, from Old English heard, from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

hard (comparative harder, superlative hardest)

  1. (of material or fluid) Having a severe property; presenting difficulty.
    1. Resistant to pressure.
      This bread is so stale and hard, I can barely cut it.
    2. (of drink) Strong.
    3. (of water) High in dissolved chemical salts, especially those of calcium.
    4. (physics, of a ferromagnetic material) Having the capability of being a permanent magnet by being a material with high magnetic coercivity (compare soft).
  2. (personal or social) Having a severe property; presenting difficulty.
    1. Requiring a lot of effort to do or understand.
      a hard problem
      • 1988, An Oracle, Edmund White
        Ray found it hard to imagine having accumulated so many mannerisms before the dawn of sex, of the sexual need to please, of the staginess sex encourages or the tightly capped wells of poisoned sexual desire the disappointed must stand guard over.
      • 2013 July 26, Nick Miroff, “Mexico gets a taste for eating insects …”, in The Guardian Weekly, volume 189, number 7, page 32:
        The San Juan market is Mexico City's most famous deli of exotic meats, where an adventurous shopper can hunt down hard-to-find critters such as ostrich, wild boar and crocodile.
    2. Demanding a lot of effort to endure.
      a hard life
    3. Severe, harsh, unfriendly, brutal.
      a hard master;  a hard heart;  hard words;  a hard character
      don't be so hard on yourself
    4. (dated) Difficult to resist or control; powerful.
  3. Unquestionable.
    hard evidence
    • 2011 December 19, Kerry Brown, “Kim Jong-il obituary”, in The Guardian:
      Unsurprisingly for a man who went into mourning for three years after the death in 1994 of his own father, the legendary leader Kim Il-sung, and who in the first 30 years of his political career made no public statements, even to his own people, Kim's career is riddled with claims, counter claims, speculation, and contradiction. There are few hard facts about his birth and early years.
  4. (of a road intersection) Having a comparatively larger or a ninety-degree angle.
    At the intersection, there are two roads going to the left. Take the hard left.
  5. (slang, vulgar, of a male) Sexually aroused.
    I got so hard watching two hot girls wrestle each other on the beach.
  6. (bodybuilding) Having muscles that are tightened as a result of intense, regular exercise.
  7. (phonetics, not comparable)
    1. Plosive.
      There is a hard c in "clock" and a soft c in "centre".
    2. Unvoiced
      Hard k, t, s, ch, as distinguished from soft, g, d, z, j.
    3. Velarized or plain, rather than palatalized
      The letter ж (ž) in Russian is always hard.
  8. (art) Having a severe property; presenting a barrier to enjoyment.
    1. Rigid in the drawing or distribution of the figures; formal; lacking grace of composition.
    2. Having disagreeable and abrupt contrasts in colour or shading.
  9. (not comparable) In the form of a hard copy.
    We need both a digital archive and a hard archive.

SynonymsEdit

AntonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

AdverbEdit

hard (comparative harder, superlative hardest)

  1. (manner) With much force or effort.
    He hit the puck hard up the ice.
    They worked hard all week.
    At the intersection, bear hard left.
    The recession hit them especially hard.
    Think hard about your choices.
    • Dryden
      prayed so hard for mercy from the prince
    • Shakespeare
      My father / Is hard at study; pray now, rest yourself.
    • 1985, Michael A. Arbib, In search of the person: philosophical explorations in cognitive science, page 119:
      What, then, of the voluntarist's sense that one often has to think long and hard before making agonizing choices?
  2. (manner) With difficulty.
    His degree was hard earned.
    The vehicle moves hard.
  3. (obsolete) So as to raise difficulties.
    • Sir Thomas Browne
      The question is hard set.
  4. (manner) Compactly.
    The lake had finally frozen hard.
  5. (now archaic) Near, close.
    • Bible, Acts xviii. 7
      whose house joined hard to the synagogue
    • 1999, George RR Martin, A Clash of Kings, Bantam 2011, page 418:
      It was another long day's march before they glimpsed the towers of Harrenhal in the distance, hard beside the blue waters of the lake.

Derived termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

NounEdit

hard (countable and uncountable, plural hards)

  1. (countable, nautical) A firm or paved beach or slope convenient for hauling vessels out of the water.
    • 1952, Edward John Barrington Douglas-Scott-Montagu Baron Montagu, ‎Beaulieu, the Abbey, Palace House, and Buckler's Hard (page 36)
      The Monastery's ironworks at Sowley were renowned for centuries but declined with the passing of the 'wooden walls' at Buckler's Hard — a great number of these ships having been built with timber from the Beaulieu Woods []
  2. (uncountable, drugs, colloquial, slang) crack cocaine.

StatisticsEdit

Most common English words before 1923 in Project Gutenberg: family · earth · live · #403: hard · ask · question · doubt

AnagramsEdit


DutchEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Dutch hart, from Old Dutch hart, from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

AdjectiveEdit

hard (comparative harder, superlative hardst)

  1. (objects) hard, strong
    Antonyms: zacht
  2. (economics) (of a currency) strong, not easily devalued
  3. unquestionable, uncontestable
    harde feiten: hard facts
  4. (emotion) heartless, unsympathetic
    Antonyms: zacht
  5. hard, difficult
    een harde strijd: a difficult fight
  6. (magnitude) harsh, heavy
    harde straffen: harsh punishments
    een harde regen: heavy rain
  7. (water) hard, rich in calcium
  8. (sound) loud
    Synonyms: luid
    Antonyms: zacht
InflectionEdit
Inflection of hard
uninflected hard
inflected harde
comparative harder
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial hard harder het hardst
het hardste
indefinite m./f. sing. harde hardere hardste
n. sing. hard harder hardste
plural harde hardere hardste
definite harde hardere hardste
partitive hards harders
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

AdverbEdit

hard

  1. (speed) fast, swiftly
    Ik heb een bekeuring gekregen omdat ik te hard heb gereden.
    I got a ticket because I drove too fast.
  2. very
  3. (noise) loudly

Etymology 3Edit

Non-lemma forms.

VerbEdit

hard

  1. first-person singular present indicative of harden
  2. imperative of harden

FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from English hard.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

hard (plural hards)

  1. (of pornography) hardcore
    Des photos hards.
    Hardcore pictures.

NounEdit

hard m (plural hards)

  1. hardcore pornography
    Le Journal du hard est une émission de Canal + dédiée au cinéma pornographique.
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)

IrishEdit

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

hard

  1. h-prothesized form of ard

Norwegian BokmålEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse harðr, from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

AdjectiveEdit

hard (neuter singular hardt, definite singular and plural harde, comparative hardere, indefinite superlative hardest, definite superlative hardeste)

  1. hard (not soft)
  2. hard, stern, severe
  3. hardy

Related termsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit


Norwegian NynorskEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse harðr, from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

hard (masculine and feminine hard, neuter hardt, definite singular and plural harde, comparative hardare, indefinite superlative hardast, definite superlative hardaste)

  1. hard
  2. hard, stern, severe
  3. hardy

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit


Old SaxonEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *harduz.

AdjectiveEdit

hard (comparative hardiro, superlative hardist)

  1. hard

DeclensionEdit




Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit


SpanishEdit

AdjectiveEdit

hard (invariable)

  1. hard, heavy, hardcore