hostis

Contents

LatinEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Italic *hostis, from Proto-Indo-European *gʰóstis ‎(guest, stranger), whence also Proto-Germanic *gastiz and Proto-Slavic *gostь.

PronunciationEdit

(Classical) IPA(key): /ˈhos.tis/, [ˈhɔs.tɪs]

NounEdit

hostis m ‎(genitive hostis); third declension

  1. an enemy of the state, a stranger
  2. (plural only) the enemy

InflectionEdit

Third declension i-stem.

Case Singular Plural
nominative hostis hostēs
genitive hostis hostium
dative hostī hostibus
accusative hostem hostēs
ablative hoste hostibus
vocative hostis hostēs

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • hostis” in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1879.
  • hostis” in Félix Gaffiot (1934), Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Paris: Hachette.
  • Meissner, Carl; Auden, Henry William (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to cut one's way (through the enemies' ranks): ferro viam facere (per confertos hostes)
    • the foe is at our heels, is upon us: hostis in cervicibus alicuius est
    • to try one's strength with the enemy; to try issue of battle: periculum hostis facere
    • to cut off all supplies of the enemy: intercludere, prohibere hostes commeatu
    • to surprise and defeat the enemy: opprimere hostes (imprudentes, incautos, inopinantes)
    • to make an inroad into hostile territory: excursionem in hostium agros facere
    • to offer battle to the enemy: potestatem, copiam pugnandi hostibus facere
    • to provoke the enemy to battle: proelio (ad pugnam) hostes lacessere, provocare
    • to not let the enemy escape: hostem e manibus non dimittere
    • to march on the enemy: gradum inferre in hostem
    • to attack the enemy: aggredi hostem
    • to attack the enemy: invadere, impetum facere in hostem
    • to attack the enemy: signa inferre in hostem
    • to rush into the midst of the foe: in medios hostes se inicere
    • to break through the enemy's centre: per medios hostes (mediam hostium aciem) perrumpere
    • to come to close quarters: manum (us) conserere cum hoste
    • to come to close quarters: signa conferre cum hoste
    • to attack the enemy in the front: adversis hostibus occurrere
    • to attack the enemy in the rear: aversos hostes aggredi
    • to attack the enemy in the rear: hostes a tergo adoriri
    • to fight a pitched, orderly battle with an enemy: iusto (opp. tumultuario) proelio confligere cum hoste (Liv. 35. 4)
    • to throw oneself on the enemy with drawn sword: strictis gladiis in hostem ferri
    • to fall upon the enemy's flank: in latus hostium incurrere
    • to surround the enemy from the rear: circumvenire hostem aversum or a tergo (B. G. 2. 26)
    • to be surrounded by the superior force of the enemy: multitudine hostium cingi
    • to be a match for the enemy: parem (opp. imparem) esse hosti
    • to repulse the enemy: pellere hostem
    • the enemy's line is repulsed: acies hostium impellitur
    • to drive the enemy from his position: loco movere, depellere, deicere hostem (B. G. 7. 51)
    • to repel the attack of the enemy's cavalry: summovere or reicere hostium equites
    • to repulse an attack: repellere, propulsare hostem
    • to rout the enemy: prosternere, profligare hostem
    • to put the enemy to flight: in fugam dare, conicere hostem
    • to put the enemy to flight: fugare hostem
    • to rout the enemy's forces: fundere hostium copias
    • to utterly rout the enemy: caedere et fundere hostem
    • to utterly rout the enemy: fundere et fugare hostem
    • to drive the enemy before one: prae se agere hostem
    • to run away from the enemy: terga dare hosti
    • to pursue the enemy: hostes insequi, prosequi
    • to follow up and harass the enemy when in flight: hostes (fusos) persequi
    • to overtake the enemy: hostes assequi, consequi
    • to be on the heels of the enemy: tergis hostium inhaerere
    • to bring the flying enemy to a stand: fugam hostium reprimere (B. G. 3. 14)
    • there was great slaughter of fugitives: magna caedes hostium fugientium facta est
    • to escape from the hands of the enemy: effugere, elābi e manibus hostium
    • to let the enemy escape: dimittere e manibus hostes
    • to rescue some one from the hands of the enemy: eripere aliquem e manibus hostium
    • to inflict a defeat on the enemy: cladem hostibus afferre, inferre
    • to annihilate, cut up the enemy, an army: hostes, exercitum delere, concīdere
    • to absolutely annihilate the enemy: hostes ad internecionem caedere, delere (Liv. 9. 26)
    • to absolutely annihilate the enemy: hostium copias occidione occīdere (Liv. 2. 51)
    • to gain a victory over the enemy: victoriam reportare ab hoste
    • to throw grappling irons on board; to board: in navem (hostium) transcendere
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