From Middle Dutch toch, alteration of doch.




  1. still, nevertheless, anyway
    Hij is ziek, maar toch werkt hij door.
    He's sick, but he still keeps working.
  2. after all, despite what was expected
    Ben je nu toch gekomen?
    You did come after all? (I thought you would not)
  3. yes, surely; implies a positive contradiction, used to contradict a negative.
    Wil je niet meekomen? — Toch wel!
    Don’t you want to come along? — Yes I do!
  4. In questions, a modal particle indicating uncertainty or worry, implying that the speaker hopes to be confirmed or reassured.
    Hij is toch gekomen? (with emphasis on gekomen)
    He did come, didn't he?
    Dat kun je toch niet doen?
    Surely you can't do that?
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