- Marks ordinals written in digits when the final term of the spelled number is "first"
- the 21st century
- Excrescent suffix (adding sound but largely not changing the meaning).
When there is a shorter synonymous word (as in amongst/among), the form with -st is generally considered more formal, old-fashioned, affected, or British. However, against is distinct from again, and midst is used in some context distinctly from mid.
The suffix -st consists of two parts: a suffix -t (Proto-Indo-European *-ti) and an inserted -s-. The -s- is the result of a wrong segmentation of stem and suffix of a noun in cases where the stem of the noun ended with -s-. For example: a word like Dutch vorst (“frost”) could be interpreted as vors+t or as vor+st. This suffix existed already in Gothic (𐌰𐌽𐍃𐍄𐍃 (ansts), from 𐌿𐌽𐌽𐌰𐌽 (unnan)).
- appended to the stem of a verb, this suffix yields a verbal noun; it is similar in function to the Dutch suffix -ing
- appended to an adjective this suffix forms the superlative
- ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, ISBN 90-03-21170-1; § 167
- -est. Forms the superlative of adjectives.
- Dutch: -st