Ancient Greek edit

Ancient Greek ordinal numbers
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    Cardinal : εἷς (heîs)
    Ordinal : πρῶτος (prôtos)
    Adverbial : ἅπαξ (hápax)

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Traditionally held to be the superlative of πρό (pró, before) (compare πρότερος (próteros)), but it is unclear how such a contraction would come about. Could also be from a Proto-Indo-European *pr̥H- or *per-, with cognates including Lithuanian pirmas, Sanskrit पूर्व (pūrva), and Avestan 𐬞𐬀𐬎𐬭𐬬𐬀 (paurva). In both cases, the ω (ō) and (ā) forms are difficult to reconcile.

A more recent hypothesis derives the Attic and Doric forms from Proto-Hellenic *pro-atos.[1]

Pronunciation edit


Adjective edit

πρῶτος (prôtosm (feminine πρώτη, neuter πρῶτον); first/second declension

  1. first
  2. earliest
  3. foremost, most prominent
  4. (mathematics) prime

Declension edit

Antonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Greek: πρώτος (prótos)
  • Mariupol Greek: про́тос (prótos)
  • English: proto-
  • French: proto-
  • Italian: proto-
  • Latvian: proto-
  • Spanish: proto-

References edit

  1. ^ Van Beek, Lucien (2022). Greek. In T. Olander (Ed.), The Indo-European Language Family: A Phylogenetic Perspective (pp. 173-201). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108758666.013