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HindiEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Sanskrit वृक (vṛka).

NounEdit

वृक (vŕkm

  1. a wolf

SanskritEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-Aryan *wŕ̥kas, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *wŕ̥kas (wolf), from Proto-Indo-European *wĺ̥kʷos (wolf). Cognate with Avestan 𐬬𐬆𐬵𐬭𐬐𐬀(vəhrka), Old Persian 𐎺𐎼𐎣 (varka) (whence Persian گرگ(gorg)), Latin lupus, Ancient Greek λύκος (lúkos), Lithuanian vilkas, Old Church Slavonic влькъ (vlĭkŭ), Old English ƿulf (whence English wolf). Native grammarians etymologize it as "the tearer" and connect it to root √vrasc, compare वृक्ण (vṛkṇa).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

वृक (vṛ́kam

  1. a wolf
    • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 1.183.4:
      मा वां वृको मा वृकीरा दधर्षीन्मा परि वर्क्तमुत माति धक्तम्।
      अयं वां भागो निहित इयं गीर्दस्राविमे वां निधयो मधूनाम्॥
      mā vāṃ vṛko mā vṛkīrā dadharṣīnmā pari varktamuta māti dhaktam.
      ayaṃ vāṃ bhāgo nihita iyaṃ gīrdasrāvime vāṃ nidhayo madhūnām.
      Let not the wolf, let not the she-wolf harm you.
      Forsake me not, nor pass me by or others.
    • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 1.183.4:
      यो नः पूषन्नघो वृको दुःशेव आदिदेशति।
      अप स्म तं पथो जहि॥
      yo naḥ pūṣannagho vṛko duḥśeva ādideśati.
      apa sma taṃ patho jahi.
      Drive, Pūṣan, from our road the wolf, the wicked inauspicious wolf,
      Who lies in wait to injure us.
  2. plough
  3. thunderbolt
  4. moon; sun
  5. (botany) a kind of plant (= बक (baka))
  6. the resin of Pinus longifolia, now Pinus palustris

DeclensionEdit

Masculine a-stem declension of वृक (vṛ́ka)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative वृकः
vṛ́kaḥ
वृकौ
vṛ́kau
वृकाः / वृकासः¹
vṛ́kāḥ / vṛ́kāsaḥ¹
Vocative वृक
vṛ́ka
वृकौ
vṛ́kau
वृकाः / वृकासः¹
vṛ́kāḥ / vṛ́kāsaḥ¹
Accusative वृकम्
vṛ́kam
वृकौ
vṛ́kau
वृकान्
vṛ́kān
Instrumental वृकेण
vṛ́keṇa
वृकाभ्याम्
vṛ́kābhyām
वृकैः / वृकेभिः¹
vṛ́kaiḥ / vṛ́kebhiḥ¹
Dative वृकाय
vṛ́kāya
वृकाभ्याम्
vṛ́kābhyām
वृकेभ्यः
vṛ́kebhyaḥ
Ablative वृकात्
vṛ́kāt
वृकाभ्याम्
vṛ́kābhyām
वृकेभ्यः
vṛ́kebhyaḥ
Genitive वृकस्य
vṛ́kasya
वृकयोः
vṛ́kayoḥ
वृकाणाम्
vṛ́kāṇām
Locative वृके
vṛ́ke
वृकयोः
vṛ́kayoḥ
वृकेषु
vṛ́keṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

DescendantsEdit

  • Maharastri Prakrit: 𑀯𑀬 (vaya)
  • Pali: vaka
  • Sauraseni Prakrit: 𑀯𑀅 (vaä)

Proper nounEdit

वृक (Vṛ́kam

  1. name of an Asura
  2. name of a son of Krishna
  3. name of a king
  4. name of a son of Ruruka (or Bharuka)
  5. name Prithu
  6. name of a son of Shura
  7. name of a son of Vatsaka
  8. (in the plural) name of a people and a country (belonging to मध्यदेश (madhya-deśa)) (compare वार्केण्य (vārkeṇya))

Related termsEdit

Borrowed termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • वृक” in Carl Cappeller, A Sanskrit–English Dictionary: Based upon the St. Petersburg Lexicons, Strasbourg: Karl J. Trübner, 1891, →OCLC, page 516.
  • Monier Williams (1899), “वृक”, in A Sanskrit–English Dictionary, [], new edition, Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, OCLC 458052227, page 1008.
  • Arthur A. Macdonell, A practical Sanskrit dictionary with transliteration, accentuation, and etymological analysis throughout, London: Oxford University Press, 1893, page 294
  • Horace Hayman Wilson, A dictionary in Sanscrit and English, 2nd ed., Calcutta: Education Press, Circular Road, 1832, page 700