Ancient Greek edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Hellenic *aná. Beekes' derivation from *h₂en- doesn't explain the second syllable.[1] LIPP reconstructs Proto-Indo-European *áno (up, over, along).[2] For /o/ > /a/ a vowel harmony is posited, cf. παρά (pará), κατά (katá), ἄντα (ánta), μάλα (mála), σάφα (sápha), θαμά (thamá). For the stress shift, an analogy with other prepositions. Cognates include Avestan 𐬀𐬥𐬀 (ana), Latin an- (up) in an-hēlō (to gasp), an-testor (to call up as a witness)[3], and English on.

The genitive is an innovated Greek associative. The dative is from the PIE locative. The accusative is from the pre-PIE directional.

Pronunciation edit


Preposition edit

ᾰ̓νᾰ́ (aná) (governs the genitive, dative, and accusative)

  1. [+genitive] (rare) on board
  2. [+dative] (of location) on, upon
  3. [+accusative]
    1. up, upwards, along
    2. in sequence, each, throughout
    3. up to
    4. (of amounts) at a rate, speed, or price of, for
    5. (of time) translatable with an adverbial noun phrase
      ἀνὰ πᾶσαν ἡμέρανanà pâsan hēméranevery day
      ἀνὰ πᾶν ἔτοςanà pân étosevery year

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Greek: ανά (aná)

References edit

  1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) “Ἀνά”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  2. ^ Dunkel, George E. (2014) Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme [Lexicon of Indo-European Particles and Pronominal Stems] (Indogermanische Bibliothek. 2. Reihe: Wörterbücher) (in German), volume 2: Lexikon, Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter GmbH Heidelberg, →ISBN, pages 50-1
  3. ^ Walde, Alois, Hofmann, Johann Baptist (1938) “1. an-”, in Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), 3rd edition, volume 1, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, page 43

Further reading edit